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Obadiah, the leader or Khaqan of the Khazars, adopted rabbinic Judaism two generations after their conversion.

807 HARUN AL RASHID (Persia)

Forced Jews to wear a yellow badge and Christians to wear a blue badge (see 796).

808 FEZ (Morocco)

Re- established the city of Fez which had been founded by his father Idris I twenty years earlier. The city was first built on one river bank ( Madinat Fas) in 788. Idris II (791-828) built an additional, and competing city (Al-'Aliya) on the other side which became his capitol. Idris II encouraged Jews to live freely in their own quarter, in return for an annual tax. The city soon became a commercial center, and schools of Jewish learning were established. One of its earliest scholars was Judah ibn Quraysh, a Semitic linguist and grammarian who was fluent in Hebrew, Aramaic and Arabic.

809 - 813 GREAT ABBASID CIVIL WAR (Persia)

Also knows as the Forth Fitna, broke out between the sons of Al Rashid - Mohammed Alemin and Abdulla Almamun. The war entailed severe persecution for non-Moslems. With Alemin's defeat, Almamun became the caliph. His reign (813-833) was marked by tolerance and the development of a philosophical form and scientific study.founded an academy called the House of Wisdom (Bayt al-Ḥikmah).

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