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A Jewish woman named Perna applied for a physicians license. It is not known whether she received one.

C. 1460 - 1532 ABRAHAM BEN ELIEZER HALEVI (Spain-Eretz Israel)

Scholar and kabbalist aka haZaken to distinguish him from others with that name. He was forced to leave Spain with the expulsion, and spent many years wandering - a fact which had a great impact on him especially regarding the idea of redemption . He reached Jerusalem in 1514 and served as the head of a yeshiva . Ha-Levi wrote numerous books dealing with Kabbalah and the coming of the messiah. They include Masoret ha-Hokhmah ("Tradition of Wisdom"), Ma'amar Perek Helek dealing with Talmudic references. Nevuat ha-Yeled (The Prophecy of the child) Mashreh Kitrin (Untier of Knots) and Iggeret Sod ha-Ge'ullah (The letter about the mystery of redemption") He believed that the age of the Messiah would begin in 1524 ( see 1510).

C. 1460 - C. 1523 DON JUDAH ABRAVANEL(Abarbanel)(Spain)

Also called Leone Ebreo, he was the son of Don Isaac. While he was in Italy seeking refuge, his son was forcibly taken into the church in Portugal. He is noted for his Dialogues on Love (Dialoghi d'amore) considered one of the most significant works of Renaissance Neoplatonism and had an effect on later philosophers including Spinoza.

1460 - 1497 ELIJAH DEL MEDIGO (Crete)

A distinguished physician, philosopher, translator and kabbalist. He was respected throughout the Italian courts.At the request of Pico della Mirandola the Italian Renaissance humanist and scholar, he translated many of Averroes, the Andalusian-Arab philosophers commentaries into Latin.


The Converso son of Diego Arias (treasurer to Henry IV) became Bishop of Segovia. Many new Christians attained high positions in both the government and the Church, which led to resentment and jealously on the part of many "old Christians". This paved the way for the acceptance of the Inquisition. Despite his position, Davila was later persecuted by the Inquisition.

C. 1460 - 1554 SOLOMON IBN VERGA (Spain-Turkey)

Physician and scholar. His is famed for his Shevet Judah (Staff/ tribe of Judah) a historical chronicle . He relates various persecutions (64 in number), beginning with the destruction of the second temple. Ibn Verga tried to analyze the source of these persecutions, proposing that it is flamed by jealousy, and religious fanaticism both stemming from a lack of education. This said he readily admitted that he was pessimistic as to whether they would do any good. It was first printed in 1550, and translated into Yiddish in 1591, then into Latin, Spanish and German. Although there are questions as to the accuracy of his work, it is considered one of the greatest accomplishments of Hebrew literature during the renaissance rn

1461 August 10, ALFONSO DE ESPINA (Spain)

A Franciscan Bishop, called on king Henry IV of Castile for the immediate establishment of a Spanish inquisition against the Jews. In 1459 De Espina had written Fortalitium fidei in which he condemned both "Judios publicos," public non converted Jews, and "Judios ocultos," secret Jews. He praised as truth all the claims of blood libels, host desecration's and the poisoning of wells. De Espina detailed his plan for the actual implementation of an inquisition. He also called for the total expulsion of all Jews, as the only way for Spain to become a truly Christian country. He is considered by some to be the practical father of the Spanish Inquisition. Henry promised to consider it.

1462 FRANKFURT (Germany)

After intensive pressure by the Church and especially the Pope, the Jews were confined to a special area (ghetto) known as the Judengasse, which was behind gates and walls. Since the ghetto was not permitted to be enlarged, all building within it had to be done vertically.

1462 - 1505 REIGN OF IVAN THE III (The GREAT) (Russia)

The Grand Duke of Muscovy. He was responsible for breaking the Tartars' 240 year hold on Russia. He also laid the basis for a unified Russia.

1462 MONTI DI PIETA (Perugia, Italy)

A free loan association, the Funds of Piety was established by Fra Michele da Milano as a replacement for Jewish money lenders. The problem of usury (charging interest) even pertained to such societies and fierce debate raged as to whether they could take even enough interest to cover expenses. Over the next 50 years, over 30 Monti opened in Italy eventually receiving the pope's blessing (1515) and often Jewish money lenders worked side by side with these institutions.

1462 July 12, ANDREW (Anderl) OF RINN (Austria)

Alleged victim of a ritual murder. He was supposedly bought from his Uncle by four Jewish travelers. The cult of Andrew of Rinn was introduced in 1475, but it became popular only in the 17th century. The local church designed panels describing in detail the "martyrdom" of Anderl at the hands of Jews. Each year there was a procession to his grave. In the 1990's, the bishop of Innsbruck (Bishop Stecher) succeeded in replacing the panels after trying to forbid the cult. There are still people who make the pilgrimage.

1464 April 12, CRACOW (Poland)

Prior to his death in 1456, John of Capistrano had called for a crusade against the Turks. Such a crusade composed of clergy, students impoverish nobles and peasants passed through Cracow, and Lemberg on the third day of Easter where they killed over thirty Jews and plundered their homes. The attacks later expanded to include Posen and the surrounding area. Despite his previous repealing of Jewish “privileges” King Casimir IV imposed a fine on the city council for allowing the pogrom to take place.

1465 FEZ (Morocco)

Riots broke out after Sultan Abd al-Haqq asked the Jews of Fez for financial help and appointed Harun (Aaron ben Batash),a local Jew to be his prime minister. During the riots the Sultan was murdered and Aaron was executed by having his throat cut. Most of the city's Jews were killed. Some reports claim that thousands were killed with only 11 left alive.

1466 January, SICILY

King John of Sicily gave formal permission to establish a Jewish University in medicine and law. The idea was not acted upon, and in 1492 the Jews were expelled by order of the Spanish crown.

1468 POSEN (Poland)

With conditions similar to that of Cracow (1464), an anti-Jewish riot ensued.

1468 - 1549 ELIAS (ELIJAH BAHUR) LEVITA (Germany-Italy)

Grammarian and Lexicographer. Levita was renowned in his day for his teaching of Hebrew to Christian scholars. His own works include Dikduk Eliyahu Halevi, Pirkei Eliyah and Masoret Hamasoret. Two additional important compositions were Meturgeman (a dictionary) and Tishbi which is a lexicon of Hebrew used in the Talmud. Although invited to Paris in the name of the king to lecture, he refused, stating that it would make it too difficult for him to continue to live as a religious Jew. Levita is credited with writing the first Hebrew-Yiddish dictionary and being the first to publish a Yiddish translation of the Psalms. With all his accomplishments, he is most famed for his adaption of the epic Bovo d’Antonia (Anglo-Roman romance, "Sir Bevis of Hamton) into Yiddish, also known as the Bovo Buch (1507). It was the first Yiddish non-religious book, and went through 40 re-printings over the next five centuries.rnrn


A few months after his ascension to the Sultanate (1468-95), he forced the Jews to pay a fee of 75,000 gold pieces or be expelled. This severely impoverished the community.

1468 March 13, KING FERDINAND I (FERRANTE) ( Naples)

Although tyrannical and greedy, he decided to give the Jews full rights of citizenship making it one of (if not the only) place in medieval Europe to do so. Naturally – it was for a price, but even this did not last after his death in 1494 when his son Alfonso II assumed the crown.

1469 TOMAS DE TORQUEMADA C. 1420-1498 (Spain)

A Dominican, he became Queen Isabella's confessor. He exerted tremendous influence - especially over the queen - and was instrumental in persuading the king and queen to expel the Jews in 1492. Torquemada - together with Cardinal Mendoza - convinced the pope to establish the Spanish Inquisition. He was appointed Inquisitor General in 1483.

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