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1420 LYONS (France)

All Jews were expelled from Lyons, including the refugees from Paris who were expelled 20 years earlier. The only Jews left in France remained in Provence (until 1500) and in the possessions of the Holy See.

C. 1420 - 1494 ISAAC BEN MOSES ARAMA (Spain)

Rabbi and philosopher. In an effort to neutralize effect of the forced conversion sermons he delivered counter sermons, which were later included in his writings. Arama fled Spain to Portugal after the expulsion, and then to Naples where he died soon after. His works include Akedat Yitzchaḳ (Binding of Isaac) a philosophical commentary on the bible. Ḥazut Ḳashah (A Burdensome Vision) on philosophy and theology. Yad Abshalom (The Hand of Absalom) on the Book of Job and Hamesh Megillot on the five scrolls.

1420 - 1495 MOSES B. ELIJAH CAPSALI (Crete-Turkey)

Jewish leader and HaRav HaGadol the first Chief Rabbi of the Ottoman Empire. The official title Hakham Bashi was only officially instituted in 1836. Capsali was well respected, and had excellent relationships with both Mehmed II (1432 1481) and his son Bayezid II (1447 1512). He encouraged Bayezid II to send the Ottoman Navy to Spain in order to help evacuate Spanish Jewish exiles and bring them to the Ottoman empire. His son Elijah (see 1523) also became a respected scholar. them to the Ottoman empire. His son Elijah (see 1523) also became a respected scholar.

1420 May 23, ARCHDUKE ALBERT (Albrecht)(1397-1439)(Austria)

Later to become king of Bohemia and Hungary as Albert the Magnanimous, accused a rich Jew, Israel of Enns, of purchasing a wafer in order to desecrate it. He ordered the imprisonment and forcible conversion of all Jews in the surrounding Viennese area. Those who refused were expelled. Those who were well off were kept in prison, many of whom were tortured and their property confiscated.rnrn

1420 November 25, POPE MARTIN V

Favorably reinstated the old "privileges"/charter of the Jews and ordered that no child under the age of twelve could be forcibly baptized without parental consent.

1421 March 12, WIENER GESERA (Gezerye) (Vienna, Austria)

A combination of murder libel and host desecration charges brought about the destruction of the entire Jewish community.This was done under the auspices of Archduke Albert V of Austria and was partly due to the revival of the crusader spirit of the Hussite Wars. Many Jews were forcibly baptized others took their own lives. Albert ordered the execution of 92 men and 120 women who were burned at the stake south of the Vienna city. The Jews were placed under an "eternal ban" and the synagogue was demolished.rnrnrn

1422 February 20, POPE MARTIN V (1417-31)

Issued a Bull reminding Christians that Christianity was derived from Judaism and warning Church leaders not to incite against the Jews.He also criticized Dominican friars for their policy of compulsory sermons. The Bull was withdrawn the following year, following allegations that the Jews of Rome attained the Bull by fraud.

1423 CONVENTION OF THE SHLAKHTA (Landed Gentry) (Varta Poland)

Led by King Vladislav Yagilu, the Shlakhta which served as a parliament, passed a law forbidding Jews to lend money against any security. In practicality it meant a far greater risk to all Jewish money lenders.

1424 COLOGNE (Germany)

Jews were banned from the city. This ban remained in effect until Cologne was annexed by revolutionary France in 1794.

1424 KAIFENG (China)

Jewish physician Y'en Ch'eng was given the surname "Chao" as an honor by the Emperor. This family, which probably originated in India and Babylon, became one of the leading Chinese Jewish families.


Pope Martin V renewed the law requiring Jews to wear a distinctive badge.

1427 March 9, POPE MARTIN V (Italy)

Ordered the Italian fleets to cease transporting Jews to Eretz Israel. The basis for the order was the claim that the Jews were responsible for building a Mosque on Mount Zion in the hope of eventually turning it into a synagogue. This made immigration to Eretz Israel far more difficult.

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