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1859 GARIBALDI (Italy)

126 Jews joined Garibaldi's volunteers ("Red Shirts") in helping to conquer the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies for the Kingdom of Italy. At this time, there were less than 30,000 Jews in all of Italy.

1948 May 11, GOLDA MEIR (Meyerson)(Jordan)

Met with King Abdullah of Jordan in an effort to prevent war. Golda Meir went on to serve as Israel's foreign minister and it's fourth prime minister (1969-1974).

1808 - 1863 GABRIEL RIESSER (Germany)

An assimilated Jew, he refused to adopt Christianity and became the leader of the Jewish Emancipation movement in Germany. He established a periodical called Der Jude (The Jew).

1866 GALANTZ (Romania)

City officials started a tug-of-war with Turkey over the Danube. In this case, the Jews were the rope. They were forcibly shipped across the river and told not to return. Turkey refused to accept them and shipped them back. This continued until Romania decided to drown them if they returned. Two people subsequently drowned and Turkey allowed the survivors to remain.

1859 April 14, GALATZ (Romania)

Jews were accused of taking blood from a Christian child (for the baking of matzos), though not of killing him. Fifteen "culprits" were arrested. The next day a mob broke into the synagogue. Tney killed some of the worshippers, destroyed some fifty scrolls, and demolished the synagogue. The fifteen were soon released with no convictions, yet the government refused to allow the synagogue to be rebuilt for nearly twenty years.

1837 January 1, GALILEE EARTHQUAKE (Eretz Israel)

Registering approximately 6.5 (in today's terms) killed an estimated two thousand Jews perished mainly in Safed and Tiberius . Numerous monuments and archaeological sites were damaged. The Alsheich synagogue and the southern wall (containing the torah scrolls) of the Abuhav Synagogue were not affected. This together with the attacks the following year (see 1838), led many of the residents chose to resettle to Jerusalem and Hebron rather than rebuild. This led to the Jews becoming the largest ethnic population in Jerusalem within a decade.

415 October 20, GAMLIEL VI ( Eretz Israel)

Was deposed of his office as Nasi of the Sanhedrin ( Patriarch). Gamliel (c. 370–425) lost his position after authorizing the building of a synagogue, in contradiction to the edit of the Western Emperor Honorius (384 – 423) prohibiting the building of new synagogues. Gamliel who was also a physician, had also held the Roman rank of prefect . The office of Patriarch was abolished by the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II (408-450).

370 - 425 GAMLIEL VI (Eretz Israel)

The last patriarch and descendant of the House of Hillel, which was founded by the Tanna, Hillel I (d. 10 C.E.). A descendant of King David, Hillel founded a school, Beit Hillel (House of Hillel), which preached tolerance and patience. He was one of the first scholars to devise rules of interpretation for the Torah. When Gamliel died without a male heir, the Emperor, Theodosious II, abolished the position of patriarch, thus ending the last semblance of Jewish national organization in Israel. All Jewish leadership now passed to the Diaspora.

1500 - 1568 GARCIA DE ORTA (Portugal-India)

Converso scientist and physician. He is known as "the first European writer on tropical medicine and a pioneer in pharmacology." In 1580, more then ten years after his death, he was condemned by the Inquisition and his remains were thrown into the sea.

1289 GASCONY (France)

Jews were expelled from France and their property was confiscated. (Edward I of France had incurred large debts and he needed money quickly.)

C. 1440 - 1510 GASPAR DA GAMA (Goa, India - Portugal)

A Jew, whose real name and origins are unknown, though some claim he was originally from Poland. He was captured and sold as a slave in India. While he was serving the ruler of Goa in 1498, the visiting Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama took him prisoner, forced him to convert, and gave him a new name. Using his vast knowledge of languages, Gaspar accompanied many Portuguese voyages, meeting Amerigo Vespucci and Pedro Cabral.


The famed Russian poet (1743 – 1816) had been appointed by czar Paul I to investigate the famine in white Russia. In his report Opinion, he placed most of the blame on the "mercenary trades" of Jews.

1525 GAZA

Ninety- five Jewish families were registered as paying taxes. There was a Jewish community in Gaza more of less continuously, from Talmudic times until 1929.

1811 GAZA (Eretz Israel)

The Jewish community decided to relocate to Hebron. They took their synagogue's 15th century doors and reset them in a synagogue in Hebron where they were destroyed by the Arabs in 1929.

636 GAZA (Eretz Israel)

The principal Jewish community in Byzantine Judea, was conquered by Omar.

C. 1515 - C. 1587 GEDALIAH IBN YAHYA (Italy)

Talmudist and historian . He wrote more than 20 works only a few which are in existence. He worked on his Sefer Shalshelet ha-Ḳabbalah, (" Chain Of Tradition") for 40 years. It included philosophy kabbalah genealogy and the history of his time . His work has been criticized as not always accurate, but is important none the less.


Aka Tante (aunt) Truus. Dutch resistance hero, organizer of the kindertransports to England, and savior of thousands of Jewish children. After the outbreak of war, she continued her efforts to help refugees escape as well as providing them with food and shelter. She was arrested in May 1942 but succeeded in being released, continuing her work until the end of the war. After the war she was active in helping reunite families. In 1966 she was honored as a Righteous Among the Nations by the Israeli government.


In order to support her family she experimented with using oats to make brandy. She was very successful and opened a large distillery. Unfortunately, probably do to the difficulty of the work (heat and alcohol vapors) she fell ill and died of a lung ailment.

1917 December 11, GENERAL ALLENBY ENTERED JERUSALEM (Eretz Israel)

General Allenby, head of the Egyptian Expeditionary Force (of the British army) entered Jerusalem, forcing the Turks to retreat. Allenby, while "understanding" the aspirations of Zionism, had strong reservations regarding the British policy of establishing a Jewish national homeland.

1943 August, GENERAL BOR-KOMOROWSKI (Poland)

The newly appointed commander of the Polish Home Army issued an order that actions should be taken against "Jewish bandits" (partisans). He encouraged his groups to "liquidate the leaders of those bands," even by cooperating with the Germans. Many Home Army members killed or turned over to the Germans thousands of Jewish partisans and refugees.

1919 August, GENERAL DENIKIN (Russia)

Commander of the White Russian Army and supported by the United States, he attempted to overthrow the Bolsheviks. He temporarily succeeded in stopping both Petlura and the Bolsheviks. Like Petlura, he identified the Jews with communism and proceeded to carry out his own pogroms, allowing his troops to perpetrate over 213 pogroms, and killing upwards of five thousand Jews.

1942 June 22, GENERAL ERWIN ROMMEL (Egyptian border)

With Rommel's approach from the south, a general draft was instituted in Eretz Israel. Twenty thousand Jews joined the army.

1941 October 19, GENERAL FRANZ BOHME (Belgrade, Yugoslavia)

The German military governor, ordered 100 civilians to be executed for each of the twenty one German troops that had been killed by Serbian partisans. He specifically chose 1500 Jews from the Belgrade ghetto. This marked the first time that a Wehrmacht general initiated a mass execution. Bohme killed himself in 1947 rather than stand trial.

1945 September 17, GENERAL GEORGE S. PATTON

Taking General Eisenhower on a visit to DP camps, he called Jewish inmates "the greatest stinking bunch of humanity" and stating that they have "no sense of human relationships". Patton had also referred to the Jewish DP's as "lower than animals". When attacked for his anti-Semitic remarks, Patton called it a "plot by Jews and Communists" to replace him.

1945 August 21, GENERAL GEORGE S. PATTON (Poland)

Turned back four trainloads of 650 Jews organized by the Brichah movement. They attempted to cross the Allied zones near Pilsen, Czechoslovakia hoping to enter Germany and the special camps being set up for Jewish refugees. Although there had been a request from the "top authorities" of the US army's XXII corps to allow the transports through, General Patton ordered his 8th armored Division to use force to send them back to Poland and many Jews were injured. The uproar in the press, combined with the soon-to-be-released Harrison Report, once and for all stopped the Americans from prohibiting Jews from enter into the American zone in Germany.

1862 December 17, GENERAL GRANT (USA)

In issuing his infamous order 11, he ordered all "Jews as a class" expelled from his lines. In New York City 7,000 Jews marched in protest against his decision. Lincoln rescinded Grant's order.

1931 - 1936 GENERAL GYULA VON GOMBOS (Hungary)

Former head of the "White Terror" riots, he became prime minister and fostered anti-Semitism. He once headed the Party of Racial Defense dedicated to anti-Semitism.


At Eisenhower's headquarters, Germany was divided into four sectors. Tens of thousands of Jews fled to the American and British Zones. The Third Reich, known as the Thousand Year Reich was over. While it existed, approximately 6,000,000 Jews were killed; 63% of the Jewish population of Europe prior to the war was exterminated.

1939 November 13, - 1941 July 30, GENERAL KAZIMIERZ SOSNKOWSKI (Poland)

Headed the émigré Polish government. Sosnkowski was a notorious anti-Semite who imprisoned 10,000 Jewish soldiers during the Russian-Polish war.

1945 October 6, GENERAL MARK CLARK (Austria)

After receiving a report from James Rice, a representative of the JDC, (and fearful that this report may reach the press), he publicly reprimanded General Rinehart and his chief of staff Colonel Epes of the 26th division for their treatment of Jewish DP's and the appalling conditions of the camps under their control. The area of General Harry Collins and the 42nd "Rainbow Division" had no such problems.

1942 July 25, GENERAL POLITICAL MEETING (Warsaw, Poland )

Was held with representatives from the Joint, General Zionists, left-wing Zionists, Bund, Agudat Israel, communists and Jewish socialists, as well as the historians Emanuel Ringeblum, Dr. Shipper and others. Everyone except Rabbi Alexander Zusha Friedman and Dr. Isaac Shipper agreed that although there would be little help from the outside world and it would be like "a fly fighting an elephant"- resistance was the only answer. Dr. Shipper's position was that any defense would bring about the total destruction of the ghetto and Rabbi Friedman called on them to believe that God would help them through the Allies and the Russian army.

1946 January 2, GENERAL SIR FREDERICK MORGAN (Germany)

The British Chief of Displaced Persons for the United Nations (UNRRA - The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration) in Germany claimed that there was a Jewish conspiracy in trying to leave Europe. "They are well dressed, well fed, and rosy cheeked" and had "pockets bulging with money" and warned that the Jews were "growing into a world force." He also insisted that he did not find one "concrete example" of a pogrom within Poland since the war. Although he later claimed he was misquoted, he never retracted or explained what he really did say.

1937 June 11, GENERAL YONA YAKIR ( Russia)

Along with eight other high ranking officials and officers (five of them Jewish) were killed by Stalin. Yakir, holder of two Orders of the Red Banner and one of the founders of the Red Army, had just been appointed commander of the Leningrad military region less then three weeks earlier. This marked the beginning of the Great Purge in which 30,000 officers and political commissars were murdered, an act that would almost cost Stalin WWII. It is estimated that at least 1,500 of them were Jewish.


Attempted a rightist coup which failed. Their prison sentences were extremely light and they resumed their activities soon after their release.

1490 GENEVA (Switzerland)

Jew were expelled and not allowed to return for 300 years. Jews had lived there since their expulsion from France by Philip Augustus in 1182.

1493 January 31, GENOA (Italy)

During the previous year, Jews fleeing Spain were allowed to land for three days. As of this date this special consideration was cancelled due to the "fear" that the Jews might introduce the Plague (Black Death) into Genoa.

1567 June 15, GENOA (Italy)

Expulsion of the Jews. The two prior expulsions of 1515 and 1550 were local. This decree was extended to the entire republic. Within a few years a limited number of Jews, specifically those engaged in money lending and business, were again allowed to live there.

658 - 1000 GEONIC AGE (Babylon)

The task of the Geonim, was to broaden the study of Talmud and emphasize its practical application. The two great academies, Sura and Pumbedita, once again became the center of Jewish intellectual life. They established their influence by inviting questions (shealot) on Jewish law from far flung communities and sending answers (teshuvot). The exact date for the beginning of this period was probably the Arab conquest of Babylonia in 657, with the first Gaon being Mar Isaac, head of the Sura academy. Others believe that it began around 589 C.E. with Ravai of Pumbedita. The last Goan of prominence was, Hai Gaon, who died in 1038. The title Gaon eventually became used to describe someone who had a great knowledge of Torah.

1875 GEORG CANTOR CANTOR (1845-1918) (Russia-Germany

Mathematician, published his New Theory of the Meaning of Infinity. In it he postulates his concept of different kinds of infinity. He is known as the creator of set theory ( the collection of objects) in math.

1838 - 1875 GEORGE BIZET (Paris, France)

Composer of the opera "Carmen". He studied under Jacques Halevy (composer of "La Juive") and married his daughter.

1896 January 20, - 1996 GEORGE BURNS (Nathan Birnbaum) (USA)

Comedian and centenarian. Burns also began his career singing at the age of seven, although he did it on his own at street corners. In 1923, he began his life long partnership in entertainment with Gracie Allen who became his wife. Their radio program ran from 1932 -1949 and after which they moved into television. Burns won an Academy Award in 1975 for his appearance in The Sunshine Boys.

1876 GEORGE ELIOT (England)

Published Daniel Deronda. As a Christian, she envisioned her protagonist finding his Jewishness, which led him to establish a Jewish Eretz Israel. The novel had a profound influence both in England and the United States, portraying a real possibility of Jews returning to a viable homeland.

1898 - 1936 GEORGE GERSHWIN (Brooklyn, USA)

Considered by some to be the greatest Twentieth Century composer. He studied under Rubin, the composer of Hiawatha, and Gettysburg Requiem, and had a powerful influence on American music. His immortal Rhapsody in Blue, a classical jazz piece, was performed by Paul Whitman in 1924. Other great works include Porgy and Bess and An American in Paris.

1938 December 8, GEORGES BONNET (France)

The French foreign minister, met with Von Ribbentrop to complain about the Jewish refugees flooding into France. Ribbentrop replied; " The difficulty of the Jewish problem lay in the fact that no country wished to receive them".

1885 - 1944 GEORGES MANDEL (France)

Politician and journalist, possessed a photographic memory. His mentor was Georges Clemenceau. Mandel was a member of the Chamber of Deputies for 17 years. As early as 1933 he warned of the danger of war with Germany. During the war he was captured by the Germans and murdered by the Vichy.

1733 July 11, GEORGIA (North American Colonies)

Soon after its settlement by General James Oglethorpe, the first group of Jews arrived from England. The approximately 40 Jews included Dr. Samuel Nunez, a former court physician, and Abraham de Leon, who introduced viniculture to the colony. Later that same month a group of 12 indigent German Jewish families also arrived. Oglethorpe was originally against allowing the Jews to remain, until one of them, a doctor, helped stop an epidemic.

1781 March 6, GEORGIA (USA)

Governor James Wright ordered the Jews of the Georgia to leave, accusing them of being disloyal to his majesty by supporting the revolution. The order was never carried out.

1931 October, GERALD WINROD (Kansas, USA)

A Protestant preacher, spurred by his belief in Jewish Bolshevism, wrote The Hidden Hand, a book about the "Protocols". He followed it with a slew of pamphlets and books as well as a magazine called The Defender, all anti-Semitic. He was dubbed "The American Streicher" by the German press.


Began. Jews were sent east to Polish ghettos. Out of the 240,000 Jews living in the Greater Reich in September 1929, only 30,000 survived. Many of those had been considered "privileged" and had been sent to Theresienstadt.

1941 November 15, - December 5, GERMAN ATTACK ON MOSCOW (Russia)

One of the turning points of the war. Many Jews played important roles in Moscow's defense, including Jacob Kreiser who attained the rank of general.


Although the war was evidently lost, they decided to continue subsidizing the Mufti, with some 12,000 marks per month as a token of respect.

1939 May 14, GERMAN LINER ST. LOUIS (Germany-Cuba-USA)

Set sail from Hamburg with 930 Jewish refugees with American quota permits and special permission to stay temporarily in Cuba. Cuban President Frederico Bru declared all but 30 of the permits worthless due to new regulations. Despite exhaustive efforts by the American Jewish Joint Distribution Committee (JDC) and the depositing of half a million dollars in a Havana account, President Bru refused to budge. The U.S. also refused to take in any refugees and sent Coast Guard boats to prevent passengers from jumping overboard. After all efforts failed, The St. Louis was forced to return to Europe. The German Press gloated: "We say we don't want Jews while the democracies claim they are willing to receive them." A Gallup poll reported that 83 percent of Americans opposed the admission of a larger number of Jewish refugees.


Hitler divided Poland into various districts (gauen). He incorporated into Germany two districts: Danzig (Gdansk) and what became known as the Wartheland which included the provinces that had been lost in the First World War plus the Lodz district. All Jews were ordered to leave the Wartheland except for those in the Lodz ghetto where Reich Jews would also be interned. Before the war, Lodz had 233,000 Jews - one-third of the population. The district had 390,000 Jews. The ghetto was totally liquidated by the end of August 1944.

1819 August 2, GERMAN POGROMS

Began in Lubeck, and Bremen. They soon spread to Bamberg, Heidelberg, Frankfurt, Mannheim, and Hamburg. Most of the riots were the consequence of rising nationalism (see 1817), the defeat of the French, and the anti-liberalism that resulted from it all.

1939 September 8, GERMAN TROOPS OCCUPIED LODZ (Poland)

With over 230,000 Jews living there. By the time the Russians arrived on January 19, 1945 they found less then 10,000 Jews left.


Was signed. Poland promised not to engage in anti-Nazi propaganda and all criticism of Germany was suppressed. Poland signed a similar pact with Russia in July 1932.


Joachim Von Ribbentrop, the German Foreign minister and Vyacheslav Molotov, Stalin's Commissar for Foreign Affairs, signed a non aggression agreement for the division of Eastern Europe. Poland was to be divided. Lithuania was to be under German Rule while Estonia Latvia and Finland were be under Russian rule. This paved the way for Hitler’s invasion.


In response to the allied invasion of North Africa, Germany and Italy occupied all of France. Nazis began to round up Jews in Marseilles. Many Jews in the Vichy areas fled to southern France (which was still occupied by Italy). Ninety thousand French Jews, mostly foreign-born, were deported. Father Pierre-Marie Benoit began to organize the transfer of Jews to the Italian occupation zone. He printed thousands of counterfeit baptismal certificates. For his actions Father Pierre-Marie Benoit was recognized in 1966 as "Righteous Among the Nations" by the State of Israel.


In response to Danish resistance, the Danish-German Agreement of 1940 was revoked. A year earlier, the Germans had changed their policy of relative non-interference with the Danes and had appointed Karl Werner Best, a former legal adviser to the Gestapo, as the Reich's representative in Denmark. Martial law was now imposed under General von Hannecken and the Danish Parliament dissolved. This also gave Best the opportunity to begin preparations for deportations. Best was sentenced to death by Copenhagen courts in 1946 but after an appeal, his sentenced was reduced and he was freed in 1951.


For six months, from November 1942 through May 1943. Within the first two weeks they arrested the leaders of the Jewish community, and demanded 3,000 Jews for forced labor. SS Colonel Walther Rauff also ordered all to Jews wear a yellow star on their backs. Jewish property was confiscated, and heavy fines imposed on the community. Thirty two forced labor camps for Jews were set up across Tunisia. The largest of these, were the camps in Bizerte and Mateur, where tens of Jewish prisoners died from disease, labor, punishment by the German guards, and Allied bombings.

1530 August 12, GERMANY

A charter was granted to the Jews despite the protests of Martin Luther. Josel of Rosheim, the famous shtadlan or interceder, was instrumental in its passing.


First rabbinical conference between the Orthodox and Reform movements was held.

1848 April 6, GERMANY

In every part of Germany, excluding Bavaria, Jews were granted civil rights. As a result, Gabriel Riesser (a Jew and an advocate for Jewish emancipation) was elected vice-president of the Frankfurt Vor Parliament, and became a member of the National Assembly. It must be noted that for the most part, these freedoms existed only on paper and were not enforced.


Twelve of the one hundred members of the Reichstag were Jewish.

1915 December, GERMANY

Under General Ludendorff, reconquered most of Poland. The Jews in the occupied territory were generally fairly treated.


Jews were accused of evading active service despite the fact that approximately 100,000 Jews served in the German army, 12% higher then their population ratio.


Anton Drexler, Dietrich Eckhard and Karl Herrer founded the German Workers Party, which became the Nazi or National Socialist Party.

1920 January, GERMANY

Ripe for anti-Semitism after its defeat in World War I, the first translation of the Protocols was published. It was called The Secret of the Elders of Zion and was published by the Verband gegen die Ueberhebung des Judentums (League against Jewish Arrogance). Led by Ludwig Miller (von Hausen) AKA Gottfried zur Beek. They also published the periodical Auf Vorposten which blamed Germany's defeat on the Jews. The German Protocols was reprinted five times in 1920 alone.

1920 - 1922 GERMANY

The International Jew, an anti-Semitic book, was translated into German and ran through sixteen editions. It was subsidized by Henry Ford.

1932 September, GERMANY

Chancellor von Papen, frightened by communist inroads into Germany, persuaded President von Hindenburg to offer Hitler the chancellorship, hoping to keep Hitler as a puppet.

1933 April 1, GERMANY

Embarked on an anti-Jewish boycott.

1933 May 10, GERMANY

All "un-German" books were ordered to be burned in public. Over 20,000 mostly Jewish books were burned.

1933 July 13, GERMANY

Nazism was declared the sole German party.

1933 - 1939 GERMANY

More than 1400 anti-Jewish laws were passed.


In an interview with London journalists, Dr. Joseph Goebbels asserted that the goal of Nazism was that "Jewry must perish".

1938 October, GERMANY

Forcibly deported 17,000 Jews to Poland. Poland refused them entry, forcing them to remain in No Man's Land. Germany continued to expel small groups, often using force to prevent them from reentering Germany after they were turned away at the Polish border by the Polish police.

1939 January 1, GERMANY

As part of what was known as the compulsory aryanization process, all Jewish retail businesses were eliminated. All Jewish owned stocks were forbidden to be traded on the free market but had to be sold to a German competitor or association. This edict was signed just a month earlier by the Economic and Justice ministries. In addition, Jews were also forbidden to drive automobiles and their licenses had to be turned in.

1939 March 15, GERMANY

Violated the Munich Agreement and marched into Prague.

1938 July 27, GERMANY

All Jewish street names were switched with German ones.

1940 February 12, GERMANY

First deportation of German Jews into occupied Poland.

1939 September 23, GERMANY

Jews were forbidden to own radios.


Russia absorbed the Baltic States. Over the next 6 months, these would include Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, and parts of Bessarabia, Galicia, Belarus, and Bukovina. This added 2,170,000 Jews to Russia's population of 3 million Jews. Russia would give some of the Baltic States only a vague semblance of independence which created resentment and prepared the way for their eventual welcoming of the Germans in June 1941. Around 1 million Jews were later killed in those areas, many of them by local special police who were active participants in their murder.


Beginning of World War II. Out of the 3,351,000 Jews in Poland, 2,042,000 came under Nazi rule while 1,309,000 came under Soviet rule. Within two days the British and French declared war on Germany. During the war a million and a half Jews fought on the side of allied forces: 555,000 for the USA; 500,000 for the Soviet Union; 116,000 for Great Britain (26,000 from Palestine and 90,000 from the British Commonwealth); and another 243,000 for other European nations.


6,000 Jews of Saloniki were deported along with 85% of the Jewish Greek population totaling 65,000 Jews.

960 - 1028 GERSHOM BEN JUDAH (Germany)

Also known as Meor HaGolah (Light of Exile). He founded a talmudic school in Mayence (the first in Germany) which became the center for European Jewry. His famous ordinances, known as Takanot D'Rabbenu Gershom, included a ban against polygamy and protection against invasion of privacy. He also ruled that forced converts returning to Judaism must be accepted and not harassed in any way.

1522 GERSHOM BEN SOLOMON KOHEN (d. 1544) (Bohemia)

Produced a beautiful Hagaddah which contained over 60 wood cuts. Kohen was the founder of the first family of Hebrew printers in central Europe in Prague. He also published various prayer books including a machzor and Pentateuch.


Scion to the banking firm and Bismarck's personal financier. He became the first professing Jew to be raised to the nobility. All of his children converted to Christianity.

1625 - 1693 (10 Adar 5453) GERSHON ASHKENAZI (Austria)

Rabbi and preacher. Ashkenazi served as chief Rabbi of Austria until the expulsion of 1670. His responsa, Avodat HaGershuni dealt with a wide range of Halacha. Much of what we know about the Chmielniki massacres are based on this work. A prolific writer, he also composed Tiferet HaGershuni, which was comprised of his sermons on the Torah, and Chidushei HaGershuni on Halacha.

1745 - 1816 GERSHON MENDES SEIXAS (New York, USA)

Son of a Portuguese immigrant, he was the first native Jew to become a rabbi. At first he was a rabbi in New York and then he founded Mikve Israel congregation in Philadelphia. Seixas was a renowned patriot who left New York as the British approached rather than be under British rule. He participated in George Washington's inauguration.

1874 - 1943 GERSHON SIROTA (Ukraine - Poland)

Hazzan. Born in Podolia, Sirota served as the cantor in the Great Synagogue, ("Tlomackie Shul") in Warsaw. Sirota was considered one of the most accomplished tenors of his day with an outstanding range. Aside from the thousands who used to come hear him in the synagogue, he made numerous concert tours in Europe and the United States. In 1903, he was invited to make 12 records, the earliest of all liturgical music. He was the only one of the great hazzanim not to leave Europe before WWII. He and his family died in the Warsaw ghetto.

1940 November 15, GHETTOS SEALED (Poland)

The Warsaw ghetto, with more then 400,000 Jews, and the Krakow ghetto, with 70,000 Jews, were sealed off.

1791 - 1864 GIACOMO (Jacob) MEYERBEER (Germany)

Pianist and operatic composer, including Le Huguenots and Le Prophets. Meyerbeer was mainly associated with French Opera. Despite numerous obstacles placed in his way by many people, including Weber, he remained a proud and faithful Jew all his life.

1942 February 7, GIADO (JADU) CONCENTRATION CAMP (Libya)

After the retreat of the British army, Benito Mussolini, ordered the Jews living in Cyrenaica ( the eastern half of Libya) to be deported to an interment camp at Giado, 235 kilometers (146 miles) south of Tripoli. Eight months later approximately 2,600 were transferred to the camp hundreds more were sent to other camps (Sidi Azaz and one in the Tobruk area). Within 3 months 500 Jews died mostly from hunger and sickness, others were shot trying to escape. The British returned in February 1943 but due to the inmates poor health it took months for the camp to be closed down.

1713 April 11, GIBRALTAR

Was ceded to Great Britain by Spain under the Treaties of Utrecht. One clause in the treaty read, "no leave shall be given under any pretence whatsoever, either to Jews or Moors, to reside or have their dwellings in the said town of Gibraltar." Although in 1717 the Jews were expelled, they were readmitted permanently the following year. The new Jewish population consisted of both English citizens and Moroccan immigrants.

1522 GIL GONZALEZ DE AVILA (Central America)

A "New Christian", became governor after defeating a local tribe headed by an Indian Chief named Nicarao.

1944 December, - 1945 January, GIORGIO PERLASCA (Budapest, Hungary)

An Italian, worked together with the Spanish ambassador, Angel Sanz Briz, to not only become a Spanish citizen but to even be "appointed" as his substitute after Briz was transferred to Germany. Under this guise, Perlasca (1910-1992)used the "Rivera law" to give Spanish citizenship to all Sephardic Jews. In the 45 days until the entry of the Russian army, he managed to save 5218 people.Sanz- Briz himself was responsible for helping save some 5000 Jews.rn


Joined with Mazzini and succeeded in unifying Italy for the first time since the Roman Empire. Many Jews volunteered in the Civil Guard. Three Jews were elected to the National Assembly, three to the City Council and two to the Committee for Defense.

1646 - 1719 GLUCKEL OF HAMELIN (Germany)

A businesswoman, she was noted for her memoirs of Eastern Europe. She was one of the very few autobiographers of her day, and her writings provide an invaluable picture of everyday life in her time.

1560 GOA

Portugal, which ruled Goa, established an inquisition which was to last (with one four year break) for almost 250 years.

1543 GOA (India)

Geronimo Diaz, a New Christian (converso) physician, was burned at the stake by the Inquisition.

1099 July 15, GODFREY DE BOUILLON (Eretz Israel)

Entered Jerusalem, drove all the Jews into the synagogue and set them afire while he marched around the synagogue singing, "Christ, we adore thee". This marked the end of Jerusalem as a Jewish center for centuries, although Jews did return in limited numbers after the Moslem reconquest in 1187. It is estimated that between 20,000 and 30,000 Jews were massacred or captured and sold as slaves in Italy.

1898 - 1978 GOLDA MEIR (MEYERSON) (Russia-USA-Eretz Israel)

Fourth Prime Minister of Israel. Born in Russia, her earliest memories were of the pogroms. Her family moved to Milwaukee and in 1921 she moved from there to Israel and worked at various jobs on a kibbutz and in the Histadrut. She became Ambassador to Russia in 1948 and Foreign Minister in 1956. In 1970, after the death of Levi Eshkol, she was appointed Prime Minister and served until after the Yom Kippur War when, accused of unpreparedness, she resigned.

1222 GOLDEN BULL (Hungary)

As a reaction to the growing influence (especially economically) of Jews, nobles helped enact a Bull which prevented Jews from becoming "nobles" as well as holding certain offices.


Alienated all rights of Jews. This led to the common practice of expelling the Jews from one district and, due to financial considerations, accepting them in another.

1943 September 16, GOLDMANN PLAN (USA)

Nahum Goldmann proposed a plan to send $10 million (partially funded by Jewish contributions) worth of medicines and food to those Jews still alive in Poland, the Balkans and Czechoslovakia. The aid was to be sent though the Red Cross. Breckenridge Long, the Assistant Secretary of State, ostensibly agreed to the idea but proposed to first send it to a discussion by the Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees - which according to officials was tantamount to "tossing it in the waste paper basket".

1903 September 1, GOMEL/HOMEL (Russia)

Von Plehve, the Russian Minister of the Interior who helped promote the Kishinev pogroms, instigated another pogrom. In spite of a vigorous defense, twelve Jews were killed and two hundred and fifty homes were destroyed. Thirty-six of the defenders were prosecuted, together with the perpetrators of the pogrom.


Was made Grand Master of the Order of Alcantara by Alfonso XI. Soon after he attained the post, he had his former patron Don Joseph of Ecija and Don Samuel Ibn Wakar arrested on trumped up charges. Don Samuel died under torture and Don Joseph died in prison. Though cautioned against it by cardinal Gil Alborno, he petitioned the king to confiscate all Jewish property and then expel them as a way to raise revenue. After criticizing the kings his mistress, Leonor de Guzman, he was arrested accused of treason, and executed in 1340.

1729 January 22, - 1781 GOTTHOLD LESSING (Germany)

Poet, philosopher and playwright. Although a strong believing Christian, he advocated religious tolerance. His plays portrayed the Jews as decent, admirable people (Die Juden, 1749). His last play was Nathan the Wise (see 1804).

1066 December 30, GRANADA (Spain)

Joseph ibn Nagrela, son of Samuel ibn Nagrela, was murdered. He had served as vizier to Badis, ruler of the Berbers. There had been constant tension between the Berbers and the Arab population which led to a civil war. Joseph attempted to ease the conflict between the two camps and prevent excesses against the local Arabs. His enemies included Abu Ishak, Berber advisor to the prince, who accused him of trying to cede the city to a neighboring prince. Badis ordered Joseph killed and crucified. In the ensuing massacre of the Jewish population 1,500 families were killed, including Joseph's wife and son. A few years later Jews were readmitted to Granada and resumed high offices.

1090 December, GRANADA (Spain)

Was captured by Yusuf ibn Tashfin (1019-1106), leader of the Almoravides. The Jewish community, believed to have sided with the Christians, was destroyed. Many fled, penniless, for Christian Toledo.

1162 GRANADA (Spain)

Jews and Christians joined to overthrow the Almohad regime. The Almohads only permitted converts to Islam to live in the city. Unfortunately the rebellion was not successful.

1915 March, GRAND DUKE SERGEI (Russia)

The Russian Commander-in-Chief began to expel all the Jews in the Pale on the pretext that they could not be trusted with the advancing Germans. Kovna, Lithuania, and Kurland were most affected. Over 500,000 Jews were forcibly evacuated, sometimes on forced marches. Until the arrival of the Germans, who prevented any more expulsions, over 100,000 died of starvation, disease and exposure.

1389 July 1, GRAND DUKE WITOLD (Vitold) (Vytautas the Great) (1350-1430) (Lithuania)

Established the basis for the legal status of Jews, including freedom of trade and worship originally in the Grodno Province and then on his other regions. This bill of rights "Cartia" was in sharp contrast to the medieval position of the Jews throughout Poland. Individual Jews were not taxed but the community itself was responsible for the collection and their lives and property were protected. The Duke also brought Jews from the Crimea and settled them in Vilna and even proposed that synagogues and Jewish cemeteries be tax exempted.

1665 August 17, GRANT OF 'PRIVILEGES' (Suriname)

The small colony, recently occupied by the English, gave full rights to the Jews (mostly Spanish and Portuguese refugees) to practice Judaism and run their own affairs. With the support of Henry Willoughby and Lieutenant General William Byam the charter included freedom of religion, permission to build synagogues and schools, as well as the right to their own court of justice. In Jamaica, Jews would only attain full rights in 1831 and in Barbados in 1802. The first synagogue and school were built in 1671 at Cassipora. This remarkably liberal charter was transferred over to the Dutch when they conquered the colony as a means of encouraging the Jews to remain.

1497 January 6, GRAZ (Austria, Holy Roman Empire)

Emperor Maximilian I expelled the Jews. Jews had been settled there since 1160, thirty years after the town was established.


Was appointed Senator of the Realm. As one of the foremost pioneers in the field of Philology and as a Jew, he spent much of his time working on ancient Hebrew inscriptions found in Italy.

809 - 813 GREAT ABBASID CIVIL WAR (Persia)

Also knows as the Forth Fitna, broke out between the sons of Al Rashid - Mohammed Alemin and Abdulla Almamun. The war entailed severe persecution for non-Moslems. With Alemin's defeat, Almamun became the caliph. His reign (813-833) was marked by tolerance and the development of a philosophical form and scientific study.founded an academy called the House of Wisdom (Bayt al-Ḥikmah).

1453 - 1821 GREECE

Under Turkish (Ottoman) rule. Jews arrived from Spain, Portugal, and even Poland. For the most part they were free to engage in trade and crafts. Their economic situation varied greatly, depending on the area. In Salonika the Jews controlled much of the trade, to such a degree that the port was closed on the Sabbath and Jewish holidays.

1941 June 2, GREECE

Was occupied and was broken into three zones German, Italian and Bulgarian. Germany occupied eastern Thrace, Salonika and Crete. Italy occupied "old Greece" ,and Bulgaria annexed western Thrace, Macedonia and the Ionian islands. Salonika which had been occupied by the Germans on April 9th immediately began to institute anti-Jewish measures. The areas occupied by Italy did not institute any harsh measures until the Nazi occupation ( see Sept. 1943) The Bulgarians only "cooperated" after strong German pressure and then only in Thrace and part of Macedonia (March 9, 1943). Thirteen hundred Jews, 300 of them former soldiers join the partisans. Out of Greek population of 70,000 Jews 58,000 were murdered.

1936 GREGORY ZINOVIEV (1883-1936) (Russia)

A Russian communist leader who was accused in a show trial of plotting to overthrow Stain. Along with many other leaders he was executed. Zinoviev was one of Lenin's closest associates, co-authoring Lenin's Against the Tide. Though a member of the Party's central government, he was opposed to a one party rule which brought him into conflict with other leaders. After Lenin's death he formed the triumvirate together with Stalin and Kamenev which forced Trotsky into exile. Zinoviev was Jewish and born by the name of Hersh Zvi Radomyslski.

1492 January 2, GRENADA (Spain)

The last Moorish stronghold was overrun, adding even more Jews to Catholic Spain. Under the terms of surrender, the Jewish inhabitants were promised protection by the King and Queen. Within a few months the razing of the Jewish quarter was ordered by Ferdinand V.

1408 GRODNO (Lithuania)

Jews received a renewed "Bill of Rights" granting them the opportunity to work as tradesmen and framers.

1820 GRODNO (Poland)

Ritual murder libel was provoked by the Jesuits.

1616 GRODNO, (Belarus-formerly Poland-Lithuania)

Jesuits arrived and accused the Jews of blood orgies and host desecrations.

1890 October 2, - 1977 GROUCHO (JULIUS) MARX (USA)

Comedian and entertainer. Groucho began his career with his brothers as a singing vaudeville act organized by their mother Minnie who actually sang with them. Of all the brothers it was Groucho who attained almost icon status during his lifetime. After a string of successful movies he hosted a hit show You Bet Your Life for over ten years and published several books.

1860 - 1911 GUSTAV MAHLER (Bohemia-Austria-USA)

Major modern Jewish composer of nine symphonies. His eighth, "Symphony of a Thousand", requires one thousand performers. Mahler was forced to convert to Christianity as a prerequisite to accepting the post of director of the Vienna Court Opera. His most important song cycles are Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen (1884) and Kindertotenlieder (1900-02). During the last 4 years of his life he conducted the Metropolitan Opera and the New York Philharmonic.

1187 July 3, GUY DE LUSIGNAN (King of Jerusalem) (Eretz Israel)

Against the advice of Raymond III of Tripoli and others, he force-marched his troops through the dry, hot Galilee. He was defeated by the Moslems near the Sea of Galilee (the Kinneret) at a site known as the Horns of Hittim.

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