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1948 March 18, CHAIM WEIZMANN (Washington DC, USA)

Met with President Truman. The meeting was arranged by Truman's long-time friend, Eddie Jacobson, but Truman insisted that it be "off the record" and without any press coverage. Although Weizmann felt somewhat reassured by the meeting, little if anything of substance was actually achieved.

409 April 1, CAELICOLAE

An African Christian sect (aka heaven worshipers) was accused of Judaizing including the use of Jewish names and condemned as heresy. In a joint communication, Honorius and Theodosius II wrote " It would be… crueler then murder… if any Christian be polluted by Jewish disbelief" Within a year they ceased to exist.

1685 CODE NOIR (Martinique)

Instigated by the French Jesuit governor Count de Blenac The Black Code was signed by King Louis XIV. According to the code, all Jews had to leave French held territories within three months or forfeit their property.

1919 June 10, COMITE DES DELEGATIONS JUIVES (Committee of Jewish Delegations) (France)

Submitted a proposal to the Paris Peace Conference requesting them to include in all treaties a provision for guaranteeing minority rights. The committee which didn't include the French and British delegations (who considered it too nationalistic), included dozens of Jewish organizations world wide and represented about12 million Jews. Among its resolutions were also that countries would be held responsible for pogroms committed on their soil, and another supporting the rights of the Jewish people to Eretz- Israel. The Committee dispersed in 1936 when it was replaced by the World Jewish Congress.

C. 1065 - 1136 C.1065-1136 ABRAHAM BAR HIYYA aka Savasorda (Spain)

Philosopher, astronomer, astrologer, and mathematician. He wrote numerous original works in Hebrew. These include Yesod ha-Tevunah u-Migdal ha-Emunah (The Foundation of Understanding and the Tower of Faith) an encyclopedia of math astronomy, optics, and music. His definite work on astronomy Khochmat ha-Chiza'yon consisted of two parts Tzurat ha-Aretz ve-Tavnit Kaddurei ha-Raki'a ("Form of the Earth and Figure of the Celestial Spheres ") and Kheshbon Mahalekhot ha-Kokhavim ("Calculation of the Courses of the Stars parts of which were translated into Latin. His Chibbur ha-Meshichah ve-ha-Tishboret (Treatise on Measurement and Calculation) (1116) was translated into Latin in 1145 by Plato of Tivoli as Liber Embadorum. It gave the area of a circle and helped introduce trigonometry to the west. He also translated many Arabic mathematical and scientific texts into Hebrew.

547 CAESAREA (Eretz Israel)

Massacre of Jews and Samaritans by local Christians.

637 CAESAREA (Eretz Israel)

After a 7-month siege, a Jew named Joseph led the Moslem attackers through a tunnel to capture the city. There were an estimated 100,000 Jews in Caesarea. After the fall of the city, the anti-Jewish tenets of the Pact of Omar was enforced against them.

870 CAIRO (Egypt)

Jewish and Christian cemeteries were flattened by Ibn Tulun in order to build the new Katai quarter. According to the Moslem cleric Mutaakkil (847), the tombs of infidels were distinguished from those of Moslems.

1008 CALIPH HAKIM (Egypt)

The sixth Fatimid caliph began his rule. He pressured all non-Moslems, especially Christians, to convert. He is said to have forced Jews to wear a small "golden calf" around their necks. Al-Hakim proclaimed himself God's incarnation, disappeared, and was probably killed during a revolt. His confessor Darazi fled to the Syrian mountains where he proclaimed a new religion - the Druse (Druze). According to the Druze religion there have been ten incarnations of God with Al-Hakim being the last - and they await his second coming.

717 - 720 CALIPH OMAR II (Syria-Eretz Israel)

Did his best to force Jews and Christians to convert to Islam. This was after a period of respite during the Umayyad dynasty. This religious revival was partly due to the Arab failure to capture Constantinople and the feeling that the end of the world was imminent.

338 December, CALLINCUM (modern Al Rakka, Iraq)

A synagogue was raided and burned, by the local bishop. Theodosius initially directed the bishop to make restitution, and to return the stolen goods. After St. Ambrose vehemently protested, he back down. This served as a precedent allowing the wanton destruction of synagogues with impunity.

388 August 1, CALLINICUM (Mesopotamia)

The synagogue located on the Euphrates was looted and burned by Church officials. St. Ambrose, one of the four Latin doctors of the Catholic church (others were St. Gregory, St. Augustine, and St. Jerome), defended the action. He reprimanded Theodosius the Great for ordering the local Bishop to pay restitution, even though expropriation was illegal under Roman law. St. Ambrose offered to burn the synagogue in Milan on his own.

1830 July 10, - 1903 CAMILLE PISSARRO (France)

Of Sephardic extraction, he became an important Impressionist painter and teacher. He mostly painted the busy streets of Paris and landscapes. He was associated with Monet and Corot. In the last years of his life he achieved recognition, and although suffering from an eye ailment painted 160 works in the last three years of his life.

1808 January 29, CANADA

Ezekiel Hart (1767-1843), though elected to the Canadian parliament, was prevented from taking his seat because, as a Jew, he could not take the oath "on the true faith of a Christian." Though re-elected in May 1808 and in April 1809, he was prevented from being seated each time. Only in 1832 did legislation pass allowing Jews to hold public office and giving them full civil rights.


Granted political rights to Jews.

1827 September 7, CANTONIST EDICT OF NICHOLAS I (Russia)

Czar Nicholas I proclaimed his Statute of Conscription and Military Service which allowed Jewish youths between 12 and 18 to be forcibly conscripted into the army and forced to serve for 25 years. Although drafting of 18 year old's for 25 years or service had been in effect since the 17th century, this statute made military service compulsory. A quota was placed on the Jewish community. Often children were simply kidnapped, which was usually done via an agent called a "Khapper" (grabber in Yiddish), who often disregarded the official minimum age of 12 and took children as young as 8 in order to fill their quota. One of Nicholas' goals was to estrange as many children as possible from the Jewish religion, and he encouraged them to change their names and accept baptism. Approximately 70,000 Jewish soldiers converted to Christianity during the 19th century.

1942 November 7, CAPTURE OF ALGIERS (Algeria)

Allies landed. Of the 377 resistance members who took Algiers - 315 were Jews. Many of the rebels' leaders were from the Aboulker family, including Jos 1920-2009)who was one of its founders.. The Americans found it hard to believe that the group had actually taken the town and decided to negotiate with the Vichy leaders, Admiral Darlan and General Juin, for their tactical surrender, leaving the Vichy government in place.

1948 February 22, CAR BOMBS ON BEN YEHUDAH STREET (Jerusalem, Eretz Israel)

Three British army trucks, led by a British armored car, parked on Ben Yehudah street and blew up after the terrorists fled in the armored vehicle. Four English soldiers took part in the attack leaving 52 dead and 123 injured.


Preached a series of four sermons against Nazi denial of the old testament as the basis for Christianity, and against Alfred Rosenberg's the theories of racial antisemitism. Many believed that his writings and sermons were in defense of the Jews. Yet, when praised by the World Jewish Congress, his secretary protested writing, “In his sermons given last year during Advent, the Cardinal defended the ancient biblical writings of Israel but did not pronounce on the Jewish question of today ".

1936 February 29, CARDINAL AUGUST HLOND (Poland)

Newly appointed Primate of Poland. He declared in a pastoral letter that since Jews are usurers, slave traders and frauds, Poles should boycott their businesses.


Speaking in the name of the Synod of Catholic bishops, defended anti-Jewish legislation as an act of "self defense".


The assessor of "Holy See", denied a request by cardinal Cesarei Leoni archbishop of Jesi ( Ancona Italy), to allow Christians work in Jewish houses on the Shabbat. He confirmed the ruling of The Third Lateran Council (1179) and Gregory IX (1233) prohibiting Jews from employing Christians .


Issued a concordat known as the Hitler Concordat. It was described by Hitler as "unrestricted acceptance of National Socialism by the Vatican". Cardinal Pacelli later became Pope Pius XII.


A long time semi-supporter of the German government, became Pope Pius XII. In October 1941 Harold Tittman, a U.S. delegate to the Vatican, asked the pope to condemn the atrocities against Jews; Pius replied that the Vatican wished to remain "neutral." In September 1942 the Popes Secretary of State,Luigi Maglione in a reply to a query stated "that the rumors about genocide could not be verified" that same year he commented that that the Vatican was "unable to denounce publicly particular atrocities". This policy of refusal to publicly condemn Nazi atrocities continued throughout the war. Albeit, after the war Pius called for forgiveness for all, including war criminals.


Held a press conference and denied church responsibility for not preventing the Kielce pogrom. Prior to the incident, Chief Rabbi David Kahane of Warsaw had tried unsuccessfully to get an audience with the cardinal for a pastoral letter against the anti-Semitic attacks. Hlond insisted that anti-Semitism was in part due to Jewish-supported communism.

1939 September 3, CARDINAL THEODORE INNITZER (Rome, Italy)

Suggested to Pius XII that all religious pupils be greeted with "Heil Hitler, praised be Jesus Christ."

1669 CAROLINAS (North American Colonies)

"Jews, heathens and dissenters" were granted liberty of conscience.


Lasted until the Treaty of Verdun. The Carolingians were the second dynasty of Frankish rulers after the Merovingians. During the height of its rule it encompassed Gaul, and much of Germany and Italy. The Jews were generally well treated, especially under Charlemagne and his grandson, Charles the Bald. Part of this was due to the fact that Christian merchants had difficulties trading due to Arab control of the seas. The Jewish traders known as the Radhanites (see 870) provided an alternative to moving goods between the two antagonistic empires . This lasted only until the closure of the China and Caucasus trade routes and the rise of the Italian city state (Venice, Pisa, Genoa and, Amalfi) traders in the 10th century.


Sem the young son of the local Rabbi Elijah Crmieu, was forcibly baptized. Despite appeals to Pope Clement XIII, he was not returned to his family. Carpentras is known for having the oldest active synagogue France.

1943 January 17, CASABLANCA MEETING (Morocco)

Two months after liberation, a meeting was held between President Roosevelt, General Patton, the U.S. envoy Robert Murphy, and General Nogues representing the non Vichy government. In response the Jews demand for the right to vote, Roosevelt encouraged the postponement of free elections. He also recommended limiting the number of Jews being allowed to practice law, medicine etc. to their percentage of the entire north African population. This he stated would eliminate specific and understandable German complaints that fifty% of the lawyers doctors teachers etc in Germany were Jews. Later that day he proposed the same idea regarding the Jews of Algeria to the French army commander General Henri Giraud.

1334 October 9, CASIMIR III THE GREAT (1310-1370) (Poland)

Re-affirmed the policies of Boleslav regarding protection of the Jews. This document was instrumental in encouraging Jews to begin to flee Germany and move East. In general Casimir protected Jewish interests. Later a myth developed, claiming that it was due to influence of a beautiful Jewish mistress, Esterka of Opoczno. (See 1356)

1910 CASIMIR FUNK (England - Poland - USA) (1884-1967)

A biochemist. While studying a deficiency disease known as beriberi at the Lister Institute in London, Funk found a substance which prevented the disease, and called it a "vitamine." Though it was actually vitamin B, the name was later used to refer to all the vitamin groups. He later also discovered that pellagra, a skin disease found in impoverished areas of the U.S., was caused by a vitamin deficiency, establishing a link between malnutrition and disease.

1367 April 25, CASIMIR III

Expanded the "priviliges" of 1334 to include the Jews in Lesser Poland and Ukraine.

1447 August 14, CASIMIR IV (Poland)

Following a fire in Posen which decimated the community , Casimir IV renewed all the rights and made his charter one of the most liberal in Europe. This charter lasted less than a decade before it was revoked under pressure by Cardinal Zbignyev Oleshnitzki the Archbishop of Cracow ( see 1454)rnrn

155 - C. 235 Cassius Dio (Dio cassius)

Roman historian. He is the primary non-Jewish source regrading Jewish history of the time. Although much of his information is reliable, he tended to imaginative exaggerations when it served his Roman patrons. Regarding the Cyrene revolt (see 115), he reported that Jews killed a half a million romans and Greeks, would eat the flesh of their victims, and anoint themselves with their blood.rn rn rn rn

1321 CASTILE (Spain)

Henry II forced the Jews to wear the yellow badge.

1196 July 25, CASTILE ATTACKED (Spain)

Al Mohades despoiled the Jewish community and took the Codes Hilleli, a 600 year old biblical manuscript considered to be the oldest Hebrew copy of the Bible in Spain.

1035 CASTROJERIZ (Castile, Spain)

King Sancho the Great was killed during a revolt. Four officials and sixty Jews were put to death during that revolt, because the locals considered Jews to be "property" of the crown.

1762 December 4, CATHERINE II (1729-1796) (Russia)

Issued a proclamation allowing all foreigners to travel and to settle in Russia - Kromye Zhydov ("except the Jews"), Within 8 years Russia acquired hundreds of thousands of Jews due to the partition of Poland.

1791 December 23, CATHERINE II (Russia)

Created the Pale of Settlement. Jews were squeezed out of the major cities and ports into the area known as White Russia. Even within the Pale, Jews were excluded from certain cities and Crown lands. The driving force behind the creation of the Pale were the merchants in Moscow, who demanded protection against Jewish competition.


Born a catholic, and married to a local councilman (Melchior Weigel) she converted late in life to Judaism. Catherine was imprisoned at the age of 70 for denying the basic tenants of Christianity, and argued her case before the Polish Sejm (15381539) She was kept in prison for 10 years. At the age of 80 upon the order of the local bishop Peter Gamrat, and with the approval of the Queen of Poland Bona Sforza, she was burnt at the stake in the Cracow market place. She refused to recant.


The Dutch West India Company granted a charter to David Cohen Nassi for a Jewish settlement. The charter allowed for "freedom of conscience, public worship, synagogue, and school". This lasted only until the Dutch cession to the French in 1664. Though the French promised to continue the Dutch policy, they soon (1671) outlawed all public worship of Judaism.

1660 September, CAYENNE ISLAND (present French Guyana)

A boat with Jews from Amsterdam and Brazil tried to land. The Dutch governor Jan Classen Langedijk refused them permission. This despite that a charter had been signed between the West India Company David Nassy on September 12 1659, allowing for the establishment of a Jewish community. The governor also tried to extort money making false claims against the group. Only following the intervention of the local population (including the Indians), did he relent. One of their most successful products was vanilla extract. The capture of the island by the French just 4 years later, spelled the end of the prospering community.


Organized by Montefiore, it found , 6,408 people Jews living in the country. This differed with the figure of 9,000 the 9,000 Jews reported by the British consul at the same time.


Was opened by Adolph Eichmann. As in other offices of this kind, Jews were forced to register for emigration,and had to turn over their property as part of a "Jewish emigration tax." For the next 15 months until emigration was banned 26,629 Jews succeeded in fleeing.


Was created to defend Jews against anti-Semitic libels in Germany. After 1933 it provided legal advice to German Jews. It was closed down by the Gestapo in 1938.

1300 May 19, CERVERA BIBLE

Was completed. Written on parchment by Samuel Ben Abraham ibn Nathan, it consists of 451 folios in two columns It was illustrated by Joseph Hazarfati. This is one of the most beautiful illuminated bibles still in existence.

1835 - 1909 CESARE LOMBROSO (Italy)

Father of modern criminology. His major work was entitled "Crime, Its Causes and Conditions". He also posited the theories that genius is a form of insanity and that criminal tendencies are hereditary. Lombroso later became interested in Zionism.

1505 December 12, CESKE BUDEJOVICE (Bohemia)

Ten Jews were tortured and killed after being accused by a local shepherd of killing a local girl. Years later, on his deathbed, the shepherd confessed he made up the whole story.

1739 - 1809 CHAILE RAPHAEL KAULLA ( Germany)

Consider to be one of the most famous court Jews in her time . Known as Madame Kaulla she took over her father business when she was just 21 years old. She was responsible for providing horses, silver, and jewelry to the local court . In 1770 she became a court factor for the Grand Duke of Wuerttemberg in Stuttgart. She married Akiba Auerbach a horse dealer and Talmudic scholar. Kaulla was probably one of the wealthiest women in Germany and supposedly established a synagogue in each of her homes.

1943 March 13, CHAIM BARLAS (Istanbul)

A Jewish agency representative, approached Msgr. Angelo (later to become pope John XXIII) with a request to help arrange with the Slovakian Government, for 1000 Slovakian Jewish children (with the approval of the British), to be allowed into Eretz Israel. The Vatican undersecretary of state Federico Tardini wrote, " The Holy See has never approved…making Palestine a Jewish home" and the plan was squashed.

1868 - 1937 Chaim Elazar Spira (Munkacz Carpathian Ruthenia/ Ukraine)

Scholar and Hassidic leader aka Munkaczer Rebbe. He was known for both his depth of knowledge and his uncompromising attitude to any ideas which did not reflect his own beliefs including some other Hassidic movements, other religious organizations and Zionism in any form. The led to his ban from anyone immigrating before the war.

1942 December, CHAIM MORDECHAI RUMKOWSKI (Lodz, Poland)

Despite evidence to the contrary, continued in his belief that it is the work of the ghetto that protects the Jews. In a speech, he declared: "our children and grandchildren will proudly remember the names of those who contributed... labor opportunities which grated justification to live".

1941 December 20, CHAIM MORDECHAI RUMKOWSKI (Lodz, Poland)

Under pressure from the Nazis to supply names of 10,000 people for "deportation", Rumkowski, head of the Lodz Ghetto Judenrat, established a "resettlement commission" which decided that "criminals" would be the first to be deported. Among criminal actions that were punishable by deportation was violation of the blackout or being caught stealing potato peelings. Although Rumkowski did try to organize the ghetto and social welfare he was considered a tyrant and dictator. He justified himself by announcing that he helped in the deportations " ..to prevent its being carried out by others...I assigned for deportation .. those who were an ..abscess...and all sorts of persons harmful to the ghetto" He and his family were deported on the last transport in August 1944 to Auschwitz .


Wrote the poem In the City of Slaughter. In this poem Bialik chastised the Jews for not defending themselves in the massacre of Kishinev. Herzl was also affected by Kishinev and he decided to visit Russia and give consideration to the Uganda Plan. In America, groundwork was laid for the American Jewish Committee and American Jewry was cast into international prominence.

1918 April 1, CHAIM WEIZMANN

Arrived in Eretz Israel to assist the British Mandate. Weizmann headed the Zionist commission (Vaad HaTzirim) that was mandated by the British Government to be the liaison between the Military administration and the Yishuv. It was also empowered to coordinate relief efforts and make recommendations regarding the future development of the country

1941 November 9, CHAIM WEIZMANN

Again demanded that the British establish a Jewish Legion. The British didn't even reply.

1874 November 27, - 1952 CHAIM WEIZMANN (Belarus-England-Eretz Israel)

Statesman and scientist. Herzl inspired him, but their many clashes led him to pursue his scientific career with Zionism as a sideline. In 1905 he moved to England where he made many useful contacts. These enabled him to take part in negotiations for the Balfour Declaration. Weizmann later became the head of the World Zionist Organization and was appointed the first president of Israel in 1948. Towards the end of his career he was no longer trusted and was considered to be too pro-British. He was sent on the eve of Independence to negotiate with Truman on the subject of partition. His autobiography is entitled Trial and Error.

1861 - 1943 CHAIM ZHITLOWSKY (Russia-USA)

Philosopher, socialist and writer. He called for a unification of socialism and Jewish nationalism. He was an opponent of political Zionism and was one of the founders of the Social Revolutionary Party in Russia. Zhitlowsky was active in the bund and help publish the communist manifesto in Yiddish. A proponent of Yiddish, he help found the Yiddish Culture Society in 1929.

1881 April 25, CHANCELLOR BISMARCK (Germany)

Accepted an anti-Semitic petition demanding, among other things, a ban on Jewish immigration. The petition bore no less than two hundred and fifty-five thousand signatures.


Abraham Farrisol proposed in his prayer book for women, to change the morning prayer from "that you made me according to your will" found in the Arba Turim (1270) -"that you made me a woman and not a man." Unfortunately his proposal was not embraced.

1944 June 17, CHANIA (CANEA) (Crete)

The Jewish community of Chania (Canea), Crete dating from Roman times, came to an end when the Nazis occupying the island of Crete ordered Chania's remaining 269 Jews into the Etz Hayyim (Tree of Life) synagogue. In the morning, they were forced to board the ship Danai on the first leg of a journey to the Auschwitz concentration camp. Halfway to the mainland, the vessel was hit by British torpedoes and sank. There were no survivors, including 600 other Greek and Italian prisoners. At the beginning of the war there were 322 Jews in Crete. Only 7 Jews survived.

1642 CHAO YING-CHENG (Moses) (China)

Helped rebuild the synagogue after the Yellow River flooded in Kai Fen. He served as a judge, and was appointed military commander of the Chekiang-Fukien circuit in 1650 after putting down groups of bandits. Chao also distinguished himself by establishing schools in the area.

768 - 814 CHARLEMAGNE (Carolingian Empire)

A Carolingian king who created the first broad-based European state. A devout Christian, he protected Jewish commerce in his kingdom. In general, Jews were permitted to freely practice their religion and most trade.. As the Muslims controlled much of the Mediterranean, the Jews began to take on the role of commercial mediators. Charlemagne saw the Jews as an economic asset and prevented excessive demands being made on them by the Church. Yet he also passed a law erasing debts that existed between Jews and Catholics and threatened to cut off the right hand of any Jew who loaned money and collected debt from the Church or Catholics. The Emperor and his successor considered Jewish property as their own to be bartered but not sold outright.

787 CHARLEMAGNE (Carolingian Empire)

Brought Kalonymos, a Jewish scholar, his family and his nephew from Luica to Mayence. Kalonymos strove to improve Jewish and general culture in France and Germany.

1772 - 1837 CHARLES FOURIER (France)

Catholic anti-Semite; he vented his hatred for the Jews at every available moment.

1322 June 24, CHARLES IV " The Fair" OF FRANCE

The son of Phillip IV, expelled all the Jews from France without the promised one year's warning.


Expelled all the Jews from France without the promised one year's warning.


A British clergyman published Scriptural Grounds for expecting the Restoration of the Jews, Jerram (17701853) believed that the Bible supports the restoration of the Jews to their homeland.

1265 CHARLES OF ANJOU (southern Italy)

Brother of Louis IX was given the rule over southern Italy by Pope Clement IV as a reward for expelling Manfred son of Frederick II from Sicily. Thus in debt to the pope, Charles began wholesale persecution of the Jews through forced conversions, economic restraints, and physical attacks. At the same time, he hired Jews to serve as translators for scientific texts from Arabic to Latin including Moses of Palermo and Faraj (Moses) Da Agrigento (Girgenti) who was also his personal physician.

1740 February 3, CHARLES OF BOURBON ( Sicily/ Naples)

Son of Philip V, king of Spain, and considered to be the first Bourbon king of Naples, offered Jews the opportunity to resettle in the two Sicilies. In actuality the 20 families who arrived, lived under severe restrictions and were violently resented by the clergy-led local populace. Within 6 years only three families had remained, these were soon to be expelled (September 18, 1746).

1660 CHARLES STUART (Charles II) (England)

Earlier that year, Thomas Violet had petitioned the London city council and the King demanding the re-expulsion of all Jews. King Charles, who recently regained the English throne, sent a Royal message to Parliament asking them to take the protection of the Jews into consideration. The Violet's petition was rejected.

879 - 929 CHARLES THE SIMPLE (France)

Confiscated Jewish owned vineyards, salt mines, and houses in Narbonne and donated them to the Church. This signaled the end of the period when the Carolingian kings dealt favorably with the Jews. It also marked the slow dissolution of the Carolingian dynasty, making way for the Capetian dynasty (987).

1500 - 1558 CHARLES V OF HAPSBURG (Holy Roman Empire)

Was generally protective of the Jews. In 1520 he refrained from demanding the customary coronation tax. In 1530 Charles V reconfirmed the "privileges"/charter he had granted to the Jews and defended them through the encouragement of Josel of Rosheim against Martin Luther.

1394 September 17, CHARLES VI (France)

Using the pretense that a convert in Paris, Denis Machuit, returned to Judaism, he once again expelled the Jews. The order, signed on Yom Kippur, was enforced on November 3. Jews continued to live in Lyons and papal possessions such as Pugnon.

1380 November 15, CHARLES VI ASCENDS THE THRONE (France)

He told a mob that he would relieve some of the taxes but not expel the Jews. Instigated by the nobles, they plundered and murdered in the Jewish quarter for four days. The nobles hoped that this way they would relieve themselves of some of the debts owed to Jewish money lenders. Some Jews took refuge in the royal prison. Hughes Abriot, the Provost, obtained an order for restitution of all property and the return of all infants forcibly baptized. Because of this, he was accused of converting to Judaism and sent to jail for a year in penance.


Pope Paul III issued a charter to the (mostly foreign) Jews of Ancona. One of the most expansive of its kind, it included allowing them to bear arms and not to be forced to hear conversationalist sermons. A similar but more limited charter was also written for the Jews of Rome the same year.

1873 January 9, - 1934 CHAYIM NAHMAN BIALIK (Eretz Israel)

Poet laureate of the Jewish national movement from his debut in 1892 (El Ha-Tsippor - To the Bird) until his death. Bialik wrote both essays and poetry in which he voiced the hopes, joys, and woes of his people. He believed that unfortunately only persecution would move people to accept Zionist aspirations. After the 1903 massacre in Kishinev, Bilalik was asked to visit the site. Afterwards he wrote Beit Ha-hareigah (In the City of Slaughter) where he condemned the cowardice of the local Jews. This served as a catalyst for the organizing of local Jewish defense units. Two of his greatest poems are Metei Midbar (Dead of the Desert) and Megillat Ha'esh (Scroll of Fire). Bialik also translated Don Quixote and William Tell into Hebrew and was president of the Hebrew Language Council.

1941 December 8, - 1945 January 18, CHELMNO/KULMHOF (Poland)

The first camp to be created specifically as a death camp was opened using the exhaust from mobile vans. Herbert Lange was the first commandant, followed by Hans Bothmann. Approximately 340,000 people were murdered there. Death camps or extermination camps were created for one purpose - to kill Jews and dispose of the bodies as efficiently as possible. The Nazi need to find more direct ways to implement their goal of a "Jew Free" Europe increased as a result of the influx of Jews from the East. In addition to Chelmno, there were five other main death camps: Belzec, Sobibor, Majdanek, Auschwitz, and Treblinka. Other smaller death camps were established near Vilna, Riga, Minsk, Kovno, and Lvov. In 1963, twelve of the camp's SS officers were sentenced to prison terms ranging from 1 to 20 years. Bothmann hanged himself in April 1946 after his arrest. There is no information on the whereabouts of Lange.

1605 July 26, CHINA

A Jesuit Missionary traveling though China wrote a letter describing his meetings with Ai T'ien, a Chinese Jewish teacher. Most of what we know regarding the Kaifeng Jewish community is from this correspondence.


Sallam, a Spanish Jewish merchant, reached China. Jews often served as a mercantile bridge between the Latin and Arab speaking worlds. Hebrew remained the language used between Jews worldwide. There was also legal conformity between the far-flung Jewish communities, which further stimulated stability in trade. Sallam was said to speak 30 languages.


Ibn Laid al-Hassan, a Moslem traveler, wrote of riots in Kanfu, China in which Jews were counted among the dead.

1940 July 31, - August 28, CHIUNE (SEMPO) AND YUKIKO SUGIHARA (Kaunas/Kovno, Lithuania)

The Japanese Consul-General began issuing travel visas to Japan through Russia so that Jews could get to Curacao and Dutch Guiana where one would not need entrance visas. Despite the Japanese official policy to deny any such visa to Jews, Chiune and his wife Yukiko, sat for many hours writing and signing visas by hand. They issued 300 visas a day which would normally take one month's worth of work for the consul. After the Soviet Union annexed Lithuania he was forced to move on to Germany. It is estimated that he saved well over 3,000 lives. Both were later honored by the Israeli government at Yad Vashem as righteous gentiles.rnrn


The more fortunate Jews were taken captive by the Tartars and were ransomed in Constantinople.

1568 CHOCHIN (India)

The Paradesi (foreign or non-Indian) synagogue, was built with the support of the rajah of Cochin, despite Portuguese rule. The synagogue is still standing.

980 CHOCHIN (India)

The Hindu ruler of Malabar, Bhaskara Ravi Varma, granted Rabban Joseph the right for Jews to live in Cochin. Most Jewish life centered around the commercial city of Cranganore until the arrival of the Portuguese in 1523.

1451 - 1500 CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS (Spain-America)

Discoverer of America. The possibility of his being Jewish is based on the origins of his name being Colon (which was a common Jewish name) and his own mysterious writings.


Prohibited Jewish physicians from practicing on Christian patients. Ironically not long afterwards the brother of King Louis IX, Alphonse count of Poitiers (1220-1271), requested that a certain Abraham famed as an eye doctor, treat him. Abraham at first refused stating that even the kings brother had to follow the rules of the church. He was persuaded otherwise.


Reinforced the decisions of the Council Of Vannes (465) in prohibiting Christians from participating in Jewish feasts.

1542 CHURCH SYNOD (Piotrkow, Poland)

As the Reformation began to make headway in Poland, the Catholic Church under Archbishop Peter Gamrat and the Papal Nuncio Luigi Lippomano decided to combat it by increasing the level of Judeophobia and demanding that Jews be expelled or at least be put into ghettos. rnHost desecration and ritual murder accusations, led by church leaders, became far more common throughout the next 200 years.


Was accepted (with reservations) by the Zionist executive. Six white papers regarding the British Mandate were issued between 1922 and 1939. Each of these policy position papers took its name from the person responsible for its issue. In this one Churchill, the colonial secretary, reaffirmed the Balfour Declaration but stipulated the idea that "Palestine" as a whole would not be "converted into a Jewish National Home." Furthermore, all Jewish immigration should not exceed the "economic capacity of the country." The Palestine Arab congress totally rejected the paper.

1939 November 11, CIRCULAR 14

Was issued by the Portuguese government, mainly due to economic considerations. In essence it ordered its consulate's not to grant transit visas to; "Stateless, Russian Citizens, Holders of a Nansen passport ( refugee travel documents) , or Jews", without prior explicit permission from Foreign Ministry head office in Lisbon. Other neutral governments passed similar regulations.

1811 December 28, CIVIL RIGHTS (Germany)

Were extended to Jews in Frankfurt.

1815 - 1863 Civil rights lost (Corfu)

After enjoying full rights under the French (1797-1799 and 1805-15), Corfu became a protectorate of England . As a result Jews were forbidden to practice in the courts, and lost many of their rights. On June 2, 1864 Corfu was annexed to Greece and the Jews were officially granted equal rights, although in reality they were prevented from holding any public office and often attacked at polling stations.

1263 CIVIL WAR (England)

Between Henry III and Simon de Montfort, leader of the Baronial Party. London Jewry was pillaged. So were the Jews of other towns.


Jews of Oxford were forced to pay ransom to both sides or else their houses were burned.


Broke out between Arabs and Berbers. This resulted in the first Jewish massacre in Cordova in April 1014, and the subsequent decline of the population and importance of the community. An aristocratic family ruled Cordova, who did not consider Jews indispensable. Consequently, the Jews in Cordova began to suffer harassment. Samuel Hanagid was forced to flee to Malaga.

1878 - 1967 CLAUDE BLOCH (USA)

Admiral and commander-in-chief of the United States Fleet(1938-1940. Bloch was a graduate of the Naval Academy and fought in both the Spanish-American War where he was decorated and in the Chinese expedition to suppress the Boxer rebellion. Bloch became a Rear Admiral in 1923 and in 1927 he commanded the battleship California. In 1938 Bloch was made commander-in-chief of the United States Fleet and served as the Commander of the Shore Installation at Pearl Harbor. Bloch retired a year later (he was 64). He continued to serve on the Naval Board until 1946.

1840 CLAUDE MONTEFIORE (London, England)

Founded an extremist Reform movement called Liberal Judaism. He supported the attempt by Oswald John Simons to establish a Jewish church. Montefiore considered Judaism to be a purely spiritual movement and opposed any form of Jewish nationalism, including Zionism.

1906 - 1963 CLIFFORD ODETS (USA)

Playwright of the Depression. He used the theater to vent his protest against social conditions. His plays included Waiting for Lefty, Awake and Sing (a compassionate depiction of American Jewry), and Golden Boy.

1839 CLOTHES TAX (Lithuania)

A special Jewish clothes tax was imposed in order to encourage Jews to forgo traditional dress. The right to wear a kippa cost five rubles a year.

315 CODE OF CONSTANTINE (Roman Empire)

Constantine's first anti-Jewish decree. It limited the rights of non-Christians.

439 January 1, CODE OF THEODOSIUS II (Byzantine Empire)

The first imperial compilation of anti-Jewish laws since Constantine (c.312) went into effect. Jews were prohibited from holding important positions involving money, including judicial and executive offices. The ban against building new synagogues was reinstated. Theodosius was the Roman emperor of the East (408-450). The Code was also readily accepted by Western Roman Emperor, Valentinian III (425-455).

1338 COLMAR ( Germany)

Emperor Louis IV the Bavarian intervened to protect the Jews of Colmar from Armleder, asking of course for extra taxes which was called the golden penny. He did not interfere with the attacks in nearby Rufach and Sulz whose Jews "belonged to the Bishop of Strasburg.

1075 COLOGNE (Germany)

Archbishop Anno's death was mourned by the Jewish community, which held a memorial service for him even though it was the Shabbat. Just prior to his death he ordered that all his debts be paid, including those to his Jewsh creditors.

1096 May 30, COLOGNE (Germany)

In one instance of individual courage, the local bishop and some of the local burghers offered the Jews protection in their own houses. The Bishop later escorted them to towns under his protection.

1349 August 23, COLOGNE (Germany)

As the riots began, many of the residents took shelter in the synagogue. When it was attacked as well, the Jews inside set fire to it rather then be taken by the mob outside. Most of those who had not taken refuge in the synagogue were also murdered. Their property was confiscated by the Church, with the municipality and the Count of Juelich each fighting over their share.

1424 COLOGNE (Germany)

Jews were banned from the city. This ban remained in effect until Cologne was annexed by revolutionary France in 1794.

1012 COLOGNE (Koeln, Germany)

A synagogue was built. The Jewish presence in Cologne probably dates back to its becoming a Roman city in the first century. The synagogue, after being destroyed three times, was eventually turned into a church (1424). Allied bombing in World War II exposed the foundations and a genizah cellar where prayer books, sacred writings and even documents were placed.


Central Conference of American Rabbis (Reform) reaffirmed the basic reform philosophies, but was less anti-traditional and anti-nationalistic regarding Israel.


Allenby's chief of staff, informed Haj Amin al Husseini ,that" if disturbances of sufficient violence occurred ... at Easter, both General Bols and Allenby would advocate the abandonment of the Jewish home”. Four days later the riots began.

1841 June 14, COLONEL CHARLES HENRY CHURCHILL (aka Churchill Bey)

A British diplomat and officer wrote a letter to Moses Montefiore supporting the Jewish return to Eretz Israel. In it he explained "Two things are indispensably necessarily. Firstly that the Jews themselves will take up the matter …and secondly that the European powers will aid them". In a letter the next year he concluded that "Judea would become once more a refuge and resting place" for the Jews. He was a cousin of Winston Churchill's father Randolph.

1492 August 3, COLUMBUS (Spain-America)

Set sail for the New World. His journal recorded the sighting of some vessels carrying Jews away from Spain. The loan for his voyage was advanced by Luis de Santangel, chancellor of the Royal household, and Gabriel Sanchez, high treasurer of Aragon. Both were born into Converso families. Support also came from Alfonso de la Caballeria vice-chancellor of Aragon and also of converso descent.


The Commissariat of Jewish Affairs was established. Headed by Xavier Vallat, it became the main authority behind anti-Jewish measures. Surprisingly, when the Germans decided to force the Jews to wear the yellow star in the Vichy zone in June of 1942, he refused to agree to this measure believing it was against French interest and was replaced.

1850 December 12, COMMISSION AGAINST VAGRANCY ( Romania)

Interior Minister Ion Bratianu, (1821-1891) instituted a number of anti Jewish legislation's. In his "commission against vagrancy", Jews were defined as a vagabonds who could be expelled at will from the country.


Under Henry M. Morgenthau issued their report on the anti-Jewish riots in Poland. Morgenthau put much of the blame on Polish Jews stating that in order to "cure the evils of Poland... they must change their mode of life."

1942 February 16, COMMITTEE FOR A JEWISH ARMY (New York, USA)

Led by Hillel Kook (alias Peter Bergson) took out an ad in the New York Times: "For Sale to Humanity, 70,000 Jews, Guaranteed Human Beings at $50 a Piece." Written by Ben Hecht, a famous Jewish playwright, it brought to the forefront the plight of Jews in Romania and demanded that the United Nations play a role in the rescue of European Jewry. The following week, Senator Edwin Johnson of Colorado echoed the demand.


Was appointed by the Czar Alexander II to seek ways to help "fuse" the Jews into Russian society and separate them from the "historical solidarity" of the Jews among themselves.


Issued its first proclamation calling for partisan action against the Germans although in reality it was the following May that partisan action became operational. Until that time most Jewish partisan units operated at their own initiative and alone. It is estimated that 20 - 25,000 Jews joined various partisan units in the German occupied areas during the war.


Was organized by the Reverend William E. Blackstone an American evangelist. This was the first Ecumenical conference between Christians and Jews in America. It called for the restoration of Israel to the Jewish people (the Reform movement did not participate). A joint, Christian-Jewish declaration against Russian oppression of the Jews was also declared.

1607 CONGREGATION BETH JACOB (Holland, Netherlands)

The first Jewish congregation in the Netherlands was established in the home of Jacob Trado. It was led by Uri Halevi. Ashkenazi Jews began to arrive 20 years later. By 1640 there would be over 1000 Jews in the Netherlands.

1763 December 2, CONGREGATION YESHUAT YISRAEL (Newport, Rhode Island, USA)

Dedicated its synagogue, now known as the Touro synagogue, after its first hazzan, Isaac Touro. Built with the help of Isaac Hart, and designed by Peter Harrison, it is the oldest synagogue still standing in the United States.


Introduced a bill into the House of Representatives which would have permitted Jewish refugees in France, who were facing deportation to Eastern Europe, to enter the United States. Congressman Samuel Dickstein (also from New York) of the House Committee on Immigration postponed any discussion until after the elections and then helped kill the bill in the committee.


Called on Congress for the boycott of the 1936 Olympics in Germany. Two weeks later, Avery Brundage, President of the American Olympic Committee, announced that the United States would participate in the games.


Called for religious freedom for all Argentineans. The constitution still provided government support for Catholic institutions and stipulated that the president and his deputy must be Roman Catholic.

307 - 337 CONSTANTINE (Roman Empire)

United the Roman Empire. Part of his policy was to protect Jews who converted to Christianity. Constantine also founded a new capital city in the East at Constantinople (modern Istanbul). This reflected the increasing weakness of the Western part of the Roman Empire and the strengthening of the Eastern part.

944 - 959 CONSTANTINE VII (Byzantine Empire)

Married to Helena, daughter of Emperor Ramano. Science rather than religion became the focal point of his reign and Jews were again allowed a measure of freedom. They were also assisted by Hasdai ibn Shaprut and his diplomatic efforts to ensure tolerance for the Jewish population.

1203 August 19, CONSTANTINOPLE (Byzantine Empire)

A fire started by Flemish crusaders burned down the Jewish quarter, including the synagogue.

1453 May 29, CONSTANTINOPLE (Ottoman Empire)

Fell to the Turks under Mohammed II. Jews were welcomed to settle in the city. Turkey provided a refuge for thousands of Jews who were soon forced to leave the Iberian Peninsula. Prophesies regarding the coming of the messiah began to circulate leading some Jews from Spain to leave to Eretz Israel.

337 - 361 CONSTANTIUS (Constantine II) (Roman Empire)

Son of Constantine the Great. Weaker than his father, he relied on his Church advisors and began a series of anti-Jewish decrees banning Jewish pilgrimages to Jerusalem and the circumcising of Christian or Pagan slaves, and protecting Jewish converts to Christianity.

339 CONSTANTIUS II`(Roman Empire)

Son of Constantine the Great, declared intermarriage with Jews and the circumcision of heathen or Christian slaves punishable by death. Considering that slaves fueled the economy, this put any Jewish owned businesses into a position where they could not compete – which was one of its goals. He also called synagogues "concliabula" (brothels). This is the first time this term is used.


Was formed, which in effect served as the government-in-exile that was also known as the PKP. Part of their job was to coordinate all anti-Nazi efforts in Poland. Many of the delegates - who represented various political parties - were distinctly unfriendly to the Jews.

1423 CONVENTION OF THE SHLAKHTA (Landed Gentry) (Varta Poland)

Led by King Vladislav Yagilu, the Shlakhta which served as a parliament, passed a law forbidding Jews to lend money against any security. In practicality it meant a far greater risk to all Jewish money lenders.


Were granted the right to live in the Netherlands by Charles V.

1690 COPENHAGEN (Denmark)

The Danish police chief was fired for suggesting that a ghetto be established.

1473 March 14, CORDOVA (Spain)

First massacre of New Christians (Marranos or Conversos). This was partly due to the populace's jealousy of the New Christians holding many important positions in the court and society. After the massacre, a decree was issued prohibiting them from living in Cordova. This process of jealousy, accusations, massacre and decree led to the accusations of heresy and, finally, to the Inquisition.

1942 October, COUNCIL FOR HELPING JEWS (Poland)

Was formed by two Polish women Zofia Kossak-Szczucka and Wanda Krahelska-Filipowiczowa. For their efforts, Kossak-Szczucka was sent to Auschwitz (where she was ransomed) and Krahelska was denounced by the "Polish National Armed Forces" and died in the hands of the Gestapo. This was one of the few Polish organizations which tried to help the Jews. Unfortunately, by the end of 1942, most of Poland's Jews had already been killed.

1434 September 7, COUNCIL OF BASEL (Switzerland)

Instituted new measures against the Jews throughout Europe. The council, aside from adopting many of the old measures like preventing interaction between Jews and Christians, prohibited Jews from entering universities, and forced them to listen to conversion sermons. The council encouraged Christian study of Hebrew in order to "combat Jewish heresy". The council, which had begun three years earlier, was to last more than 15 years and was one of the most turbulent councils in the middle ages, being for the most part a contest between council and pope for supremacy. Many Papal scholars claimed that the council was never officially recognized by the Pope, although this had no effect on the anti-Jewish legislation.


The Polish Church adopted the previous anti-Semitic regulations of the Church, including a prohibition against Christians and Jews living in the same house, or even sharing a meal together.

1095 November 27, COUNCIL OF CLAREMONT

Pope Urban II summoned Christians to retake the Holy Land from the Moslems, alleging that Moslems destroyed Christian holy places. A combination of religious, economic and social motives resulted in the overwhelming response that became known as the First Crusade, which officially began in August the following year. The Pope formed an army headed by special knights (i.e. Raymond, Godfrey, etc.). A "people's" army also joined, encouraged by Peter the Hermit and other local clerics. There would eventually be a total of eight Crusades, but only the first four were of any real significance.


Banned Jewish judges and prohibited Jews from holding administrative positions.


Decreed that Jews accepting public office had to convert.


One of the earliest Christian councils, and origin of some of the first pre Constantine canons against Jews. It included a ban on intermarriage and social intercourse or hospitality. In addition, crops were forbidden to be blessed by Jews.


Forbade Christians to rest on the Jewish Sabbath.


Expanded the edicts of the Council of Clermont and included a demand for Jews to respect the Christian clergy. Furthermore, Jews were forced to sell slaves at a lower price than market value if the slave declared his desire to convert.


Under the direction of Amolo, the Council tried to reinstate the canonical restriction that Constantine and Theodosius II placed on Jews after Deacon Bodo converted to Judaism. Amolo feared that social intercourse with Jews would lead Christians to convert to Judaism.


Christians were officially forbidden, throughout Western Europe to live in Jewish homes. As with many Church council declarations, its implementation depended on external factors and location.


Met to implement the anti-Jewish decrees of the Fourth Lateran Council.

325 COUNCIL OF NICEA (present Iznik Turkey)

Officially changed the date of Easter from that of Passover. It also forbade Jews to own Christian slaves or convert pagans to Judaism. (It should be stressed that neither this nor the consequent bans on Jews owning slaves had anything to do with the Church's attitude to slavery. It was solely a matter of not allowing the slaves to be owned by non-Christians.) This began a total separation between early Christianty (most of whose adherents were Jews) and Judaism.

1408 October 25, COUNCIL OF REGENCY (Castile/Leon, Spain)

Under the inspiration of the apostate Paul de Santa Maria, the council reinstituted all of the anti-Jewish legislation of Alfonso the Wise (1252-1284).


Although the Jewish community was quite small, this did not prevent St. Lasislas (1077-1095) from enacting measures to separate Jews as much as possible from Christians. Jews were prohibited from working on Sunday, owning slaves or marrying Christians. Despite this, no overt anti-Semitic measures were imposed.


Forbade Jews to marry Christians, own slaves, or work on Sunday. Despite the Council, no overtly anti-Jewish measures were imposed.

C. 1520 COUNCIL OF THE (FOUR) LANDS (Vaad/ Kahal) (Poland)

Was set up in Poland, with a separate council established in Lithuania. Its official objective was to help collect Jewish taxes for the government. In reality it had the status of a court and oversaw much of Jewish life. It also tried to serve as the representative of the Jewish communities and ensure that all rights and "privileges" were kept. Very few Jews had any say as to who was elected to serve in the councils, a point which led to much friction. The "Council of the Four Lands" generally consisted of: the provinces of Great Poland (capital: Poznan) and Little (Lesser) Poland (capital: Cracow); "the Lvov Land"; and the province of Volhynia. At times the council may have only included 3 "lands", and at its zenith it included 18 units. The council was abolished by the Polish Sejm in 1764.

1432 May 2, COUNCIL OF VALLADOLID (Castile, Spain)

Led by Don Abraham Benveniste,among other things, it called for the establishment of a Jewish educational system. After the disturbances of the 1390's and 1410's, many communities were left impoverished. Those that retained their wealth were often reluctant to share in the cost of educating the community at large. The council established a statute endorsed by King John II for establishing and maintaining schools. It also enacted Sumptuary laws which regulated what people may wear, how they may marry etc. They were voluntarily placed on the Jewish community by its leaders hoping to lessen ostentation and appear less flamboyant to the gentile population. Similar laws can be found starting from the 13th century (Rhineland) until the 18th century (France). rnrn


Prohibited the clergy from participating in Jewish feasts. This was designed to place Jews further beyond the pale of Christian civilization.rnrn

1311 October 16, - 1312 COUNCIL OF VIENNE ( France)

Was summoned by Pope Clement V. Although it mostly dealt with the suppression of the Knights Templar, it also resolved to establish chairs of Hebrew and Arabic at universities in Paris, Oxford, Bologna etc, in order to better dispute Judaism and to train missionaries. The chairs in Arabic were in reality never established.

1313 January, - 1380 COUNCIL OF ZAMORA (Spain)

The Council, under the patronage of the Queen Mother Maria, had as its goal to end all social interaction between Jews and Christians. The edicts included; the wearing of the "Badge of Shame", exclusion from all state occasions, and a ban on the employment of Jewish physicians. Jews were also forbidden to use Christian names. However, the council rejected the request of Pope Clement V to cancel all debts to Jews.

1816 - 1882 COUNT ARTHUR DE GOBINEAU (France)

Radical author, he upheld the credo of purity of race. In his book The Inequality of Human Races Gobineau "proved" that only the white or "Aryan" race was capable of preserving civilization. His works inspired Alfred Rosenberg (Nazi theorist).

1883 February 4, COUNT K.I. PAHLEN (Russia)

Was commissioned by Alexander III to "Study of the Current Laws Concerning the Jews" . His report, issued on May 24, 1888, recommended by a majority opinion "changing the system of laws and restrictions for a system of graduated laws of freedom and equality". They counted around 650 special laws concerning the Jews." The czar decided to accept the minority report by Count Dimitri Tolstoy, to continue the policy of preventing Jews from leaving certain areas and even instituted a quota for Jews at universities and secondary schools.

1882 January, COUNT NIKOLAI IGNATYEV (Russia)

The anti-Semitic minister of the Interior. He was requested by Alexander III to set up local commissions of inquiry into the blame for the recent pogroms. Ignatyev determined that they were caused by "Jewish exploitation." This led to the publishing of the May laws. In his desire to rid himself of the Jewish population, Ignatyev allowed Jews to emigrate. This resulted in massive immigration to the west. Alexander himself commented upon hearing about the pogroms "And I, to admit the truth , am glad when the Jews are being beaten".


French politician and economist. He posed the question of Jewish emancipation at the Metz Royal Academy, which he fully supported.

1749 (7 Sivan 5509) COUNT VALENTINE POTOCKI (Lithuania)

Was burned at the stake in Vilna. The Count, along with his friend Zeremba, had met an old Jew in a tavern and promised to convert if he could convince them of the pre-eminence of Judaism. Potocki converted and eventually settled in Vilna. Zeremba, hearing that his friend converted, did likewise and moved to Eretz Israel. Potocki's presence in Vilna became known and he was put on trial for heresy. He refused to recant and was burned at the stake. His ashes were collected and buried in Vilna. On his tomb is written "Abraham Ger Zedek" (a righteous proselyte). The Jews of Vilna would visit his grave and say Kaddish.

1826 December 16, COURT CHANCELLERY DECREES (Austria)

Based on a decree by Emperor Franz II in 1805, all candidates wishing to become district rabbis would first need to complete a German primary school of three grades.

1455 CRACOW (Poland)

Due to anti-Jewish agitation and the refusal of the authorities to offer protection, a massacre ensued.

1464 April 12, CRACOW (Poland)

Prior to his death in 1456, John of Capistrano had called for a crusade against the Turks. Such a crusade composed of clergy, students impoverish nobles and peasants passed through Cracow, and Lemberg on the third day of Easter where they killed over thirty Jews and plundered their homes. The attacks later expanded to include Posen and the surrounding area. Despite his previous repealing of Jewish privileges King Casimir IV imposed a fine on the city council for allowing the pogrom to take place.

1534 CRACOW (Poland)

The first book to be printed in Yiddish, a biblical dictionary and concordance Mirkevet HaMishnah Sefer Rebbi Anshel was published. The earliest works in Yiddish, mostly verse and biblical epics, were composed probably 100 years earlier.

1917 CRACOW (Poland)

Sarah Schneier, a former seamstress, educational advocate and daughter of a Belzer Hassid, established the first religious girls' school, calling it Bais Yaakov (House of Jacob). By 1937 there were two hundred and fifty Beis Yaacov schools with thirty-eight thousand students.

1945 August 11, CRACOW (Poland)

A Jewish school was burned down in the first of the post-war anti-Jewish riots that spread over Poland. Many of them were instigated by organizations such as AK-WiN (Wolnosc i Niezawislosc - Freedom and Independence) which was the successor to the right wing A.J. (Armja Krajowa). WiN accused the Jews and the Soviet NKVD of instigating the riots. Other riots broke out in Radom and Czestochowa. The approximately 80,000 Jews in Poland at the time (a further movement of Jews into Poland from Russia would take place in 1946) looked for any means to enter the western sectors of Germany.

1485 CRACOW (Poland)

The municipal council "recommended" that the Jewish community "of their own free will" agree to renounce its rights to trades and crafts which would compete with the Christian population - they agreed.

1407 October 26, CRACOW ACCUSATIONS (Poland)

One of the first blood libels in Poland. The Jews tried to defend themselves and were forced to take refuge in the Church of St. Anne, which was surrounded and then set afire. Any children left alive were forcibly baptized.


Advised that bagels are an appropriate gift for those about to give birth. although this is the first documented usage of the bagel it is similar to obwarzanek which were among the breads that Jews were forbidden to sell within the city walls according to a edict in 1496.

1523 CRANGANORE (Malabar Coast, India)

The Portuguese conquered the city, resulting in the destruction of its Jewish community. Most refugees fled to the city of Cochin.

1870 October 24, CREMIEUX DECREE

Minister of Justice Adolphe Cremieux, granted full citizenship for the Jews in French-ruled Algeria.

1559 April 17, CREMONA (Italy)

Sixtus Senesis, an apostate Jew who became a Dominican, tried to convince the local Spanish governor to burn the Talmud. The governor demanded witnesses before he would give the order. Vitttorio Eliano, the converted grandson of Elias Levita and one Joshua dei Cantori, bore witness that the Talmud was full of lies about Christianity. A few days later approximately 10,000 books were burned. The Zohar was not touched since the Pope and the Catholic church was interested in its publication, believing that it would supplant the Talmud and make it easier to convert the Jews. Ironically, it was Eliano himself who wrote the preface to the Cremona Zohar.

1597 CREMONA (Italy)

Jews were exiled. The Duchy of Ferrara was included in the Papal states and ceased harboring Conversos.

1454 (18 Tamuz 5214) CRETE

After a trial that lasted for two years, the nine leading members of the Jewish community who were accused of host desecration were acquitted by a Venetian court. Although further charges were brought claiming that the Jews had bribed the judges, this view was not accepted and the day was celebrated as a semi-holiday for many years by the Jewish community in Crete.

1854 March 28, CRIMEAN WAR

Britain and France joined the Ottoman empire in the war against Russia. Although the immediate cause were the rights of the Greek orthodox church in the holy land, The real reason was the expansion of Russia at the expense of the weakened Ottoman empire. Jews fought on all sides, especially the Russian side. The outbreak of war led to the cessation of any transfer of funds to Eretz Israel, which in turn resulted in great hardships. One outcome of the war was the expansion of counselor offices and the renewed interest in the area.

1941 April 10, CROATIA

Declared its independence from Yugoslavia. Ante Pavelic, head of the Ustache party, initiated anti-Jewish measures within a few weeks, and held wealthy Jews for ransom. His troops, together with a Bosnian Muslim division, took part in the destruction of synagogues and cemeteries. The Muslim division was personally blessed by Haj Amin al-Husseini, the former mufti of Jerusalem. Within a month he established his country's first concentration camp at Danica.

1944 April 18, CROATIA

The German consul in Zagreb, Siegfried Kasche, reported to the German government that "Croatia is one of the countries in which the Jewish problem has been solved."

1199 CTESIPHON (Persia)

After trying in vain to convince a local mosque adjacent to the synagogue to lower the volume of its call for prayers, the local Jewish leaders succeeded in getting the government of Baghdad to back their demands. This resulted in an anti-Jewish riot in which many Jewish stores were destroyed and eventually, under pressure, the Caliph agreed to turn the local synagogue into a mosque.

1898 CUBA

Jews were granted the previously forbidden right to build synagogues and worship publicly.

1654 June 29, CUENCA (Spain)

57 Conversos were taken to the Auto da Fe; ten were burned to death. One of them, Balthasar Lopez, announced as he was taken to the stake "I don't believe in Christ even if you bind me." He had returned recently from Bayonne to persuade his nephew to return to Judaism when he was captured by the Inquisition.

1483 - 1485 CUIDAD REAL TRIALS (Spain)

Typical of the trials of the Inquisition, many of the prime witnesses were members of the accused's own family. Fernan Falcon voluntarily testified against many people in the community, including his father. The son of Carolina de Zamora, a monk, swore to see her burned. Juan de la Sierra convinced his mother, Leonor Gonzales, to return to Spain from Portugal. Upon her return she was tortured and burned.


The first group of Jews led by Joao de Yllan from Portugal tried to settle on this island, which was captured by the Dutch in 1634 from the Spanish. The effort failed due to the difficult agricultural conditions, and special restrictions placed by the West India company regarding trade and the use of slaves on plantations. The next attempt in March 1659 succeeded with a group of around 50 Jews led by Isaac Da Costa. A cemetery was set up, and in 1732 a synagogue was built which they named "Mikve Yisrael". Isaac was the nephew of Uriel Acosta/Da Costa (see 1590).

1946 August 13, CYPRUS

Britain decided that all illegal immigrants would be deported to special camps set up in Cyprus. Over 50,000 refugees were detained there until May, 1948.

1900 March, CYPRUS

Davis (David) Trietsch, a German writer and Zionist leader, brought 11 families from Galicia to Cyprus. This as an experiment to see if Cyprus could serve as a temporary safe haven until Jews could be settled in Eretz Israel. Trietsch, (1870–1935) conceived of the idea in 1896, a year before the first Zionist congress, but only began to act on it in 1899.Unfortuatly, due to poor planning the project failed. In 1903 when the debate regarding a temporary home for Jews arose, Trietsch began quiet negotiations with the British. The opposition of the Greek Orthodox Church to any Jewish settlement on the island brought an end to his idea.

1943 May 24, CYRIL AND METHODIUS' DAY (Sofia)

A parade on this national holiday turned into a protest against the governments evacuation orders, which had forced 20,000 Jews to leave their homes as a way of appeasing the Germans. It was lead by Rabbi Daniel Zion and supported by politicians , Metropolitan Stefan and others. The Metropolitan then, took the chief rabbi into his house for protection.

1863 - 1940 CYRUS ADLER (USA)

American rabbi, scholar, and educator. Adler succeeded Solomon Schechter as president of the Jewish Theological Seminary and later became president of Dropsie College in Philadelphia. He was one of the founders of the American Jewish Historical society, the United Synagogue of America, and the American Jewish Committee.

1823 CZAR ALEXANDER I (Russia)

Banned Jews from leasing farming lands and even living in small villages. Alexander, afraid the Jews would have undo influence on local peasants, decided to force them to move to larger cities where it would be easier to keep an eye on them.

1654 CZAR ALEXIS (Russia)

Joined with Charles X of Sweden and Chmielniki to attack White Russia and Lithuania. The Cossack region was annexed by the Moscovite Empire.

1835 CZAR NICHOLAS I (Russia)

Similar to Catherine II, Nicholas ordered a Ukase (decree) which restricted the Pale even further banning Jews from living in a 25 mile zone along the western front as well as the cities of Kiev, Nikolaev and Sevastopol.

1906 July 21, CZAR NICHOLAS II (Russia)

Dissolved the Duma.


During his stay in Holland he was petitioned to admit Jews into Russia but he politely refused. In response Czar Peter (1672-1725) stated, you know the Jews, their character.. and the Russians believe me, the time has not yet come to unite the two nationalities.

1742 December 1, CZARINA ELIZABETH PETROVNA (Russia)

Expelled 35,000 Jews from parts of Russia. The Empress ( 1709-1762) was the daughter of Catherine I and Peter the Great of Russia. When advised of the financial loss she allegedly responded "I do not want any benefit from the enemies of Christ."

1892 January, CZARIST GOVERNMENT (Russia)

Closed the Volozhin Yeshiva after Rabbi Berlin (see 1817) refused to agree to the new Russian decrees. These included, reducing the number of students, prohibiting night time study, and limiting study to ten hours per day of which six would be dedication to secular studies. . The Rabbi and his family were exiled. Although the Yeshiva eventual reopened, it never attained its former glory. The last 50 students and the Rosh Yeshiva, Rabbi Hayyim Wolkin, were murdered by the Nazis at Ponar.


Was founded with Thomas Masaryk as its first president and Eduard Benes as Secretary of Foreign Affairs. At first the Jews had trouble, but it soon resolved itself. Both of these men did their best to defend the Jews.

1948 April 1, CZECHOSLOVAKIANS ARMS (Eretz Israel)

Loaded in a DC-4, made a successful landing at a small airfield, Beit Darras. Included in the "agricultural equipment" were 140 Czech M-34 machine guns and their ammunition. This was the first of many shipments organized by Ehud Avriel later ambassador and Knesset member and the purchasing unit of the Haganah, known as Rekhesh.

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